Dr Darren Tomlinson

School of Molecular and Cellular Biology

Contact: Astbury 7.108, +44(0) 113 34 37099, email address for  

other websites -

astbury webpage

laboratory website

Research Interests

Protein engineering and utilising novel artificial binding proteins in molecular biology

Antibodies are the best-studied group of biological binding molecules to date. They are important in a wide variety of biological and medical applications, but as molecular biology reagents they are limited by their significant size, poor stability, production costs and batch-to-batch variation. To overcome these issues a number of alternative binding reagents (protein, RNA and DNA aptamers) have been developed. These can bind to epitopes on target proteins and so have potential as molecular biology tools, therapeutic agents and as diagnostic tools for detection and imaging of proteins in patient samples. Our group was established to exploit a novel artificial binding protein (ABP) library. Our ABP is called an Adhiron and is based on a constant small 91 amino acid scaffold protein that constrains two randomised nine amino acid loop regions for molecular recognition. The scaffold protein is extremely stable with a Tm of 101oC and is the most stable ABP scaffold to date , and maintains the beta structure following loop insertion. We have developed a large naïve phage display library (>3x1010) of Adhirons that is of very high quality (86 % full length clones). The loop regions in the library contain an even distribution of each of the 19 amino acids excluding cysteines. We work collaboratively with academics and clinicians on numerous projects. A few examples are listed below

Inhibiting protein-protein interactions

We are working with Professor Adrian Whitehouse and Dr David Hughes to generate specific reagents to block human SUMO2 (hSUMO2), and for the first time we have developed Adhirons which differentiate between hSUMO1 and hSUMO2 isoforms. To confirm the ability to inhibit hSUMO2 binding they developed assays that test the Adhirons ability to inhibit SUMO interactions. In vitro recombinant RNF4 ubiquitinates polymers of hSUMO2 (poly-hSUMO22-8). Ads specific for GFP (irrelevant control) and for hSUMO1 were unable to inhibit RNF4s ability to ubiquitinate poly-hSUMO22-8, whereas ABPs specific for hSUMO2 robustly inhibited this activity at less than 1 µM.

Inhibiting protein function

We are working with Dr Ramzi Aijan to modulate blood clot formation or facilitate lysis (clot breakdown). We raised numerous adhirons against fibrinogen and used assays to assess changes in fibrin clot formation and lysis. Many adhirons either prolonged clot formation or altered lysis. Some Adhirons completely inhibited lysis and others inhibited specific protein protein interactions. We aim to study fibrin clot formation and identify novel methods for modulating clotting in patients.

Identifying druggable domains

We are working with Prof Ann Morgan and Dr James Robinson who are validating a receptor as a therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis, and we have identified Adhirons that block receptor function (TNF release and phagocytosis). Three of the Adhiron receptor complexes have been co-crystallised in collaboration with Dr Jo Nettleship and Dr Ray Owens at the Oxford Protein Production Facility and the X-ray structure determined by Dr Robin Owen at the Diamond Synchrotron. These co-crystal structures demonstrate that we have identified reagents that both directly and indirectly inhibit ligand binding to the receptor.

Antibody replacements

Our reagents provide a novel approach to reducing animal usage in antibody production. We have generated Adhirons against numerous targets that have been used in Western blotting, ELISA and immunofluorescence.



Faculty Research and Innovation

Studentship information

See also:

Modules managed

BIOL5320M - Practical Skills for a Regulatory Environment
BIOL5397M - Practical Skills for a Regulatory Environment

Modules taught

BIOC3160 - Laboratory/Literature/Computing Research Project
BIOL1303 - Introductory Skills for Biotechnology
BIOL3306 - Biological Sciences Research Project
BIOL5164M - Biopharmaceutical Development Pathway
BIOL5294M - MSc Bioscience Research Project Proposal
BIOL5382M - Extended Research Project
BIOL5392M - Bioscience MSc Research Project
BIOL5394M - Specialised Research Topics and Skills
BIOW5901X - Foundation module
BIOW5902X - Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design

Mr Thomas Lewis Adams  (Research Technician)

Dr Heather Martin  (Research Fellow)

Ms Anna Tang  (Research Technician)

Dr Christian Tiede  (Research Fellow)


Danah Al-Qallaf (Primary supervisor) 40% FTE
Robert Bedford (Primary supervisor) 50% FTE
Gregory Billenness (Primary supervisor) 40% FTE
Lia De Faveri (Primary supervisor) 40% FTE
Maia Harvey (Primary supervisor) 40% FTE
Katarzyna Haza (Primary supervisor) 40% FTE
Sophie Heseltine (Primary supervisor) 70% FTE
Ajinkya Rao (Primary supervisor) 50% FTE
Sophie Saunders (Primary supervisor) 50% FTE
Anna Tang (Primary supervisor) 40% FTE
Mansour Almutairi (Co-supervisor) 25% FTE
Katherine Davies (Co-supervisor) 20% FTE
Katherine Kearney (Co-supervisor) 40% FTE
Joanna Mitchell (Co-supervisor) 30% FTE
Laura Musgrove (Co-supervisor) 50% FTE
Rebecca Perrin (Co-supervisor) 20% FTE
Geoffrey Pettitt (Co-supervisor) 10% FTE
Sophie Roberts (Co-supervisor) 10% FTE
Barnaby Roper (Co-supervisor) 30% FTE
Shazana Hilda Binti Shamsuddin (Co-supervisor) 25% FTE
Pattanapong Thangsunan (Co-supervisor) 25% FTE

Lopata A, Hughes R, Tiede C, Heissler SM, Sellers JR, Knight PJ, Tomlinson D, Peckham M Affimer proteins for F-actin: Novel affinity reagents that label F-actin in live and fixed cells Scientific Reports 8, 2018
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Zhurauski P, Arya SK, Jolly P, Tiede C, Tomlinson DC, Ko Ferrigno P, Estrela P Sensitive and selective Affimer-functionalised interdigitated electrode-based capacitive biosensor for Her4 protein tumour biomarker detection Biosensors and Bioelectronics 108 1-8, 2018
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Schlichthaerle T, Eklund A, Schueder F, Strauss M, Tiede C, Curd A, Ries J, Peckham M, Tomlinson D, Jungmann R Site‐specific labeling of Affimers for DNA‐PAINT microscopy Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 2018
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Robinson JI, Baxter EW, Owen RL, Thomsen M, Tomlinson DC, Waterhouse MP, Win SJ, Nettleship JE, Tiede C, Foster RJ, Owens RJ, Fishwick CWG, Harris SA, Goldman A, McPherson MJ, Morgan AW Affimer proteins inhibit immune complex binding to FcγRIIIa with high specificity through competitive and allosteric modes of action Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 E72-E81, 2018
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Hughes DJ, Tiede C, Penswick N, Tang AAS, Trinh CH, Mandal U, Zajac KZ, Gaule T, Howell G, Edwards TA, Duan J, Feyfant E, McPherson MJ, Tomlinson DC, Whitehouse A Generation of specific inhibitors of SUMO-1- and SUMO-2/3-mediated protein-protein interactions using Affimer (Adhiron) technology Science Signaling 10, 2017
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Tang AAS, Tiede C, Hughes DJ, McPherson M, Tomlinson DC Isolation of isoform-specific binding proteins (Affimers) by phage display using negative selection Science Signaling 10, 2017
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Tiede C, Bedford R, Heseltine SJ, Smith G, Wijetunga I, Ross R, Alqallaf D, Roberts APE, Balls A, Curd A, Hughes RE, Martin H, Needham SR, Zanetti-Domingues LC, Sadigh Y, Peacock TP, Tang AA, Gibson N, Kyle H, Platt GW, Ingram N, Taylor T, Coletta LP, Manfield I, Knowles M, Bell S, Esteves F, Maqbool A, Prasad RK, Drinkhill M, Bon RS, Patel V, Goodchild SA, Martin-Fernandez M, Owens RJ, Nettleship JE, Webb ME, Harrison M, Lippiat JD, Ponnambalam S, Peckham M, Smith A, Ferrigno PK, Johnson M, McPherson MJ, Tomlinson DC Affimer proteins are versatile and renewable affinity reagents eLife 6, 2017
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Sharma R, Deacon SE, Nowak D, George SE, Szymonik MP, Tang AAS, Tomlinson DC, Davies AG, McPherson MJ, Wälti C Label-free electrochemical impedance biosensor to detect human interleukin-8 in serum with sub-pg/ml sensitivity Biosensors and Bioelectronics 80 607-613, 2016
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Rawlings AE, Bramble JP, Tang AAS, Somner LA, Monnington AE, Cooke DJ, McPherson MJ, Tomlinson DC, Staniland SS Phage display selected magnetite interacting Adhirons for shape controlled nanoparticle synthesis Chemical Science 6 5586-5594, 2015
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Barnard A, Long K, Martin HL, Miles JA, Edwards TA, Tomlinson DC, Macdonald A, Wilson AJ Selective and potent proteomimetic inhibitors of intracellular protein-protein interactions Angewandte Chemie - International Edition 54 2960-2965, 2015
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Wheway G, Schmidts M, Mans DA, Szymanska K, Nguyen TMT, Racher H, Phelps IG, Toedt G, Kennedy J, Wunderlich KA, Sorusch N, Abdelhamed ZA, Natarajan S, Herridge W, Van Reeuwijk J, Horn N, Boldt K, Parry DA, Letteboer SJF, Roosing S, Adams M, Bell SM, Bond J, Higgins J, Morrison EE, Tomlinson DC, Slaats GG, Van Dam TJP, Huang L, Kessler K, Giessl A, Logan CV, Boyle EA, Shendure J, Anazi S, Aldahmesh M, Al Hazzaa S, Hegele RA, Ober C, Frosk P, Mhanni AA, Chodirker BN, Chudley AE, Lamont R, Bernier FP, Beaulieu CL, Gordon P, Pon RT, Donahue C, Barkovich AJ, Wolf L, Toomes C, Thiel CT, Boycott KM, McKibbin M, Inglehearn CF, Stewart F, Omran H, Huynen MA, Sergouniotis PI, Alkuraya FS, Parboosingh JS, Innes AM, Willoughby CE, Giles RH, Webster AR, Ueffing M, Blacque O, Gleeson JG, Wolfrum U, Beales PL, Gibson T, Doherty D, Mitchison HM, Roepman R, Johnson CA An siRNA-based functional genomics screen for the identification of regulators of ciliogenesis and ciliopathy genes Nature Cell Biology 17 1074-1087, 2015
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Tiede C, Tang AAS, Deacon SE, Mandal U, Nettleship JE, Owen RL, George SE, Harrison DJ, Owens RJ, Tomlinson DC, McPherson MJ Adhiron: a stable and versatile peptide display scaffold for molecular recognition applications. Protein Eng Des Sel 27 145-155, 2014
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Xie C, Tiede C, Zhang X, Wang C, Li Z, Xu X, McPherson MJ, Tomlinson DC, Xu W Development of an Affimer-antibody combined immunological diagnosis kit for glypican-3 Scientific Reports 7, 2017
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Smith GA, Fearnley GW, Abdul-Zani I, Wheatcroft SB, Tomlinson DC, Harrison MA, Ponnambalam S Ubiquitination of basal VEGFR2 regulates signal transduction and endothelial function Biology Open 6 1404-1415, 2017
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Bedford R, Tiede C, Hughes R, Curd A, McPherson MJ, Peckham M, Tomlinson DC Alternative reagents to antibodies in imaging applications, 2017
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Roberts SE, Peyman S, Tomlinson D, Speirs V A 3D model to test the therapuetic efficacy of adhirons in the treatment of HER2+breast cancer, 2017

Tiede C, Tang A, Taylor T, Tomlinson D, Mcpherson M Affimers are versatile and renewable molecular recognition reagents, 2017

Hughes R, Lopata A, Balls A, Tiede C, Tomlinson D, Curd A, Peckham M Using small non-antibody binding proteins to visualise the cytoskeleton in super-resolution microscopy, 2017

Webster PJ, Littlejohns AT, Gaunt HJ, Young RS, Rode B, Ritchie JE, Stead LF, Harrison S, Droop A, Martin HL, Tomlinson DC, Hyman AJ, Appleby HL, Boxall S, Bruns AF, Li J, Prasad RK, Lodge JPA, Burke DA, Beech DJ Upregulated WEE1 protects endothelial cells of colorectal cancer liver metastases. Oncotarget 8 42288-42299, 2017
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De Siqueira J, Zani IA, Russell D, Wheatcroft S, Tomlinson D, Homer-Vanniasinkam S, Ponnambalam S LOX-1-SPECIFIC AFFIMERS BLOCK OXLDL ACCUMULATION IN VITRO, 2017

Wang W, Guo Y, Tiede C, Chen S, Kopytynski M, Kong Y, Kulak A, Tomlinson D, Chen R, McPherson M, Zhou D Ultraefficient Cap-Exchange Protocol To Compact Biofunctional Quantum Dots for Sensitive Ratiometric Biosensing and Cell Imaging. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9 15232-15244, 2017
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Kearney K, Tomlinson D, Smith K, Ajjan R Hypofibrinolysis in diabetes: A therapeutic target for the reduction of cardiovascular risk Cardiovascular Diabetology 16, 2017
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Koutsoumpeli E, Tiede C, Murray J, Tang A, Bon RS, Tomlinson DC, Johnson S Antibody Mimetics for the Detection of Small Organic Compounds Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Anal Chem 89 3051-3058, 2017
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Arrata I, Barnard A, Tomlinson DC, Wilson AJ Interfacing native and non-native peptides: using Affimers to recogniseα-helix mimicking foldamers Chemical Communications 53 2834-2837, 2017
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Robinson J, Baxter E, Tomlinson D, Foster R, Owen R, Win S, Nettleship J, Tiede C, Kankanala J, Owens R, Fishwick C, McPherson M, Morgan A Novel Agents for Blocking the Interaction of Immune Complexes with the Activatory Fc gamma RIIIa Receptor, 2016

Di Martino E, Tomlinson DC, Williams SV, Knowles MA A place for precision medicine in bladder cancer: Targeting the FGFRs Future Oncology 12 2243-2263, 2016
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King RJ, Schuett K, Tiede C, Jankowski V, John V, Simmons K, Ponnambalam S, Fishwick C, McPherson M, Tomlinson D, Ajjan R Complement C3 and hypofibrinolysis in diabetes: role of protein glycation and development of a new methodology to reduce thrombosis risk, 2016

Fearnley GW, Smith GA, Abdul-Zani I, Yuldasheva N, Mughal NA, Homer-Vanniasinkam S, Kearney MT, Zachary IC, Tomlinson DC, Harrison MA, Wheatcroft SB, Ponnambalam S VEGF-A isoforms program differential VEGFR2 signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis Biology Open 5 571-583, 2016
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Pouessel D, Neuzillet Y, Mertens LS, van der Heijden MS, de Jong J, Sanders J, Peters D, Leroy K, Manceau A, Maille P, Soyeux P, Moktefi A, Semprez F, Vordos D, de la Taille A, Hurst CD, Tomlinson DC, Harnden P, Bostrom PJ, Mirtti T, Horenblas S, Loriot Y, Houédé N, Chevreau C, Beuzeboc P, Shariat SF, Sagalowsky AI, Ashfaq R, Burger M, Jewett MAS, Zlotta AR, Broeks A, Bapat B, Knowles MA, Lotan Y, van der Kwast TH, Culine S, Allory Y, van Rhijn BWG Tumor heterogeneity of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations in invasive bladder cancer: implications for perioperative anti-FGFR3 treatment. Ann Oncol 27 1311-1316, 2016
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Smith GA, Fearnley GW, Abdul-Zani I, Wheatcroft SB, Tomlinson DC, Harrison MA, Ponnambalam S VEGFR2 Trafficking, Signaling and Proteolysis is Regulated by the Ubiquitin Isopeptidase USP8 Traffic 17 53-65, 2016
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Smith GA, Tomlinson DC, Harrison MA, Ponnambalam S Chapter Eight - Ubiquitin-Mediated Regulation of Cellular Responses to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors, 2016
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Fisher MJ, Williamson DJ, Burslem GM, Plante JP, Manfield IW, Tiede C, Ault JR, Stockley PG, Plein S, Maqbool A, Tomlinson DC, Foster R, Warriner SL, Bon RS Trivalent Gd-DOTA reagents for modification of proteins RSC Advances 5 96194-96200, 2015
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Puard V, Tan K-Y, Baldwin K, Carrol E, Patisson R, Beynon R, Tiede C, McPherson M, Tomlinson D, Ferrigno PK Affimers, new affinity reagents for life science research, 2015

Smith GA, Fearnley GW, Tomlinson DC, Harrison MA, Ponnambalam S The cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factors requires co-ordinated signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis Bioscience Reports 35, 2015
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Smith GA, Fearnley GW, Harrison MA, Tomlinson DC, Wheatcroft SB, Ponnambalam S Vascular endothelial growth factors: multitasking functionality in metabolism, health and disease Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 38 753-763, 2015
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Kyle HF, Wickson KF, Stott J, Burslem GM, Breeze AL, Tiede C, Tomlinson DC, Warriner SL, Nelson A, Wilson AJ, Edwards TA Exploration of the HIF-1α/p300 interface using peptide and Adhiron phage display technologies Molecular BioSystems 11 2738-2749, 2015
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King R, Tiede C, Simmons K, Fishwick C, Schuett K, Kearney K, Tomlinson D, Ajjan R Inhibition of complement C3 and fibrinogen interaction: a potential novel therapeutic target to reduce fibrin-related thrombosis risk, 2015

Webster PJ, Young RS, Martin HL, Harrison S, Stead LF, Tomlinson DC, Prasad RK, Burke DA, Beech DJ Inhibition of the G2/M checkpoint kinase WEE1 as an anti-angiogenic therapy for colorectal liver metastases, 2015

Barnard A, Long K, Martin HL, Miles JA, Edwards TA, Tomlinson DC, Macdonald A, Wilson AJ Selective and Potent Proteomimetic Inhibitors of Intracellular Protein-Protein Interactions. Angewandte Chemie (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) 127 3003-3008, 2015
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Karpov OA, Fearnley GW, Smith GA, Kankanala J, McPherson MJ, Tomlinson DC, Harrison MA, Ponnambalam S Receptor tyrosine kinase structure and function in health and disease AIMS Biophysics 2 476-502, 2015
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Raina M, Sharma R, Deacon SE, Tiede C, Tomlinson D, Davies AG, McPherson MJ, Wälti C Antibody mimetic receptor proteins for label-free biosensors Analyst 140 803-810, 2015
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Nash CE, Mavria G, Baxter EW, Holliday DL, Tomlinson DC, Treanor D, Novitskaya V, Berditchevski F, Hanby AM, Speirs V Development and characterisation of a 3D multi-cellular in vitro model of normal human breast: A tool for cancer initiation studies Oncotarget 6 13731-13741, 2015
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Neuzillet Y, Mertens L, Shariat S, Bostrom P, Mirtti T, Sagalowsky A, Ashfaq R, Broeks A, Van der Heijden M, Peters D, Curial C, De Jong J, Horenblas S, Hurst C, Tomlinson D, Knowles M, Bapat B, Jewett M, Zlotta A, Sanders J, Lotan Y, Van der Kwast T, Van Rhijn B Le Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3), cible thérapeutique pour le traitement personnalisé du cancer de la vessie : validation anatomo-pathologique du concept Progres en urologie : journal de l'Association francaise d'urologie et de la Societe francaise d'urologie 24 806-807, 2014

Stadler LK, Tomlinson DC, Lee T, Knowles MA, Ko Ferrigno P The use of a neutral peptide aptamer scaffold to anchor BH3 peptides constitutes a viable approach to studying their function. Cell Death and Disease 5, 2014
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Martin HL, Smith L, Tomlinson DC Multidrug-resistant breast cancer: Current perspectives Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy 6 1-13, 2014
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Fearnley GW, Smith GA, Odell AF, Latham AM, Wheatcroft SB, Harrison MA, Tomlinson DC, Ponnambalam S Vascular endothelial growth factor A-stimulated signaling from endosomes in primary endothelial cells. Methods Enzymol 535 265-292, 2014
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Adams M, Cookson VJ, Higgins J, Martin HL, Tomlinson DC, Bond J, Morrison EE, Bell SM A high-throughput assay to identify modifiers of premature chromosome condensation. J Biomol Screen 19 176-183, 2014
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Martin HL, Adams M, Higgins J, Bond J, Morrison EE, Bell SM, Warriner S, Nelson A, Tomlinson DC High-content, high-throughput screening for the identification of cytotoxic compounds based on cell morphology and cell proliferation markers. PLoS One 9, 2014
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Fearnley GW, Smith GA, Harrison MA, Wheatcroft SB, Tomlinson DC, Ponnambalam S The biochemistry of new blood vessel formation in health and disease OA Biochemistry 1, 2013

Nash CE, Holliday DL, Mavria G, Tomlinson DC, Hanby AM, Speirs V A 3D tri-culture model of normal mammary gland. A tool for breast cancer initiation studies CANCER RESEARCH 72, 2012

Tomlinson DC, Knowles MA, Speirs V Mechanisms of FGFR3 actions in endocrine resistant breast cancer International Journal of Cancer 130 2857-2866, 2012

Turrell SJ, Filby MH, Whitehouse A, Wilson AJ Cellular uptake of highly-functionalized ruthenium(II) tris-bipyridine protein-surface mimetics Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 22 985-988, 2012
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di Martino E, Tomlinson DC, Knowles MA A Decade of FGF Receptor Research in Bladder Cancer: Past, Present, and Future Challenges. Adv Urol 2012 429213-, 2012
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Tomlinson DC, Baxter EW, Loadman PM, Hull MA, Knowles MA FGFR1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition through MAPK/PLCγ/COX-2-mediated mechanisms. PLoS One 7 e38972-, 2012
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Stadler LKJ, Hoffmann T, Tomlinson DC, Song Q, Lee T, Busby M, Nyathi Y, Gendra E, Tiede C, Flanagan K, Cockell SJ, Wipat A, Harwood C, Wagner SD, Knowles MA, Davis JJ, Keegan N, Ferrigno PK Structure-function studies of an engineered scaffold protein derived from Stefin A. II: Development and applications of the SQT variant. Protein Eng Des Sel 24 751-763, 2011
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Lamont FR, Tomlinson DC, Cooper PA, Shnyder SD, Chester JD, Knowles MA Small molecule FGF receptor inhibitors block FGFR-dependent urothelial carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Br J Cancer 104 75-82, 2011
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Tomlinson DC, Knowles MA Altered splicing of FGFR1 is associated with high tumor grade and stage and leads to increased sensitivity to FGF1 in bladder cancer. Am J Pathol 177 2379-2386, 2010
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Hafner C, Di Martino E, Pitt E, Stempfl T, Tomlinson D, Hartmann A, Landthaler M, Knowles M, Vogt T FGFR3 mutation affects cell growth, apoptosis and attachment in keratinocytes. Exp Cell Res 316 2008-2016, 2010
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Tomlinson DC, Lamont FR, Shnyder SD, Knowles MA Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promotes proliferation and survival via activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in bladder cancer. Cancer Res 69 4613-4620, 2009
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Kotwal S, Tomlinson D, Pitt E, Paul A, Knowles M ERBB3 enhances ERBB2 activation leading to increased cell motility and invasion in bladder cancer cells CANCER RESEARCH 69, 2009

Hurst CD, Tomlinson DC, Williams SV, Platt FM, Knowles MA Inactivation of the Rb pathway and overexpression of both isoforms of E2F3 are obligate events in bladder tumours with 6p22 amplification. Oncogene 27 2716-2727, 2008
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Tomlinson DC, Baldo O, Harnden P, Knowles MA FGFR3 protein expression and its relationship to mutation status and prognostic variables in bladder cancer. J Pathol 213 91-98, 2007
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Tomlinson DC, Hurst CD, Knowles MA Knockdown by shRNA identifies S249C mutant FGFR3 as a potential therapeutic target in bladder cancer. Oncogene 26 5889-5899, 2007
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Tomlinson DC, L'Hôte CG, Kennedy W, Pitt E, Knowles MA Alternative splicing of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 produces a secreted isoform that inhibits fibroblast growth factor-induced proliferation and is repressed in urothelial carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Res 65 10441-10449, 2005
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Jebar AH, Hurst CD, Tomlinson DC, Johnston C, Taylor CF, Knowles MA FGFR3 and Ras gene mutations are mutually exclusive genetic events in urothelial cell carcinoma. Oncogene 24 5218-5225, 2005
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Tomlinson DC, Grindley JC, Thomson AA Regulation of Fgf10 gene expression in the prostate: identification of transforming growth factor-beta1 and promoter elements. Endocrinology 145 1988-1995, 2004
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Freestone SH, Marker P, Grace OC, Tomlinson DC, Cunha GR, Harnden P, Thomson AA Sonic hedgehog regulates prostatic growth and epithelial differentiation DEV BIOL 264 352-362, 2003