Faculty of Biological Sciences

Dr Emanuele Paci

PhD - 1996
Associate Professor
School of Molecular and Cellular Biology

Contact:  Miall 6.01a, +44(0) 113 34 33806, email address for  

Research Interests

theoretical byophysics, computational chemistry and biological physics

Computational and theoretical studies of protein folding.

Mechanisms of forced unfolding and unbinding.

Protein and peptide aggregation.

Development of novel force fields.

Mechanism of pilus growth in bacteria.


Faculty Research and Innovation

Studentship information

See also:

Modules managed

BIOC3111 - Advanced Topics in Biochemistry I
BIOC3112 - Advanced Topics in Medical Biochemistry I
BIOC3221 - Advanced Topics in Biochemistry 2
BIOC3222 - Advanced Topics in Medical Biochemistry 2
BIOC3231 - Advanced Topics in Biochemistry 3
BIOC3232 - Advanced Topics in Medical Biochemistry 3
BIOL3112 - Advanced Topics for Biological Sciences 1
BIOL3210 - Advanced Topics for Biological Sciences 2
BIOL3211 - Advanced Topics for Biological Sciences 3
MICR3120 - Advanced Topics in Microbiology 1
MICR3211 - Advanced Topics in Microbiology 2
MICR3212 - Advanced Topics in Microbiology 3

Modules taught

BIOC1301 - Introductory Integrated Biochemistry: the Molecules and Processes of Life
BIOC1302 - Introductory Biochemistry: Practical Skills
BIOC1303 - Introductory Biochemistry: Problem Solving and Data Handling
BIOC2303 - Intermediate Biochemistry: Skills
BIOC3111/12 - ATU - Protein Dynamics
BIOC3160 - Laboratory/Literature/Computing Research Project
BIOC3221/22/31/32/BIOL3210/11/MICR3211/12 - MCB ATU modules (all)
BIOL5294M - MSc Bioscience Research Project Proposal
BIOL5392M - Bioscience MSc Research Project
BIOW5901X - Foundation module
BIOW5905X - Membrane proteins
MICR3080/3110/3190/3370/BIOC3160/61/BIOL3306 - All MCB projects
MICR3080/3110/3190/3370/BIOL3306 - MICR/BIOL projects

Centre membership: The Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology

Group Leader Dr Emanuele Paci  (Associate Professor)

theoretical byophysics, computational chemistry and biological physics 


James Gowdy (Co-supervisor) 33% FTE
Carla Gómez Santiago (Co-supervisor) 25% FTE
Samuel Hickman (Co-supervisor) 33% FTE

Hickman SJ, Cooper REM, Bellucci L, Paci E, Brockwell DJ Gating of TonB-dependent transporters by substrate-specific forced remodelling NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 8 -, 2017

Wolny M, Batchelor M, Bartlett GJ, Baker EG, Kurzawa M, Knight PJ, Dougan L, Woolfson DN, Paci E, Peckham M Characterization of long and stable de novo single alpha-helix domains provides novel insight into their stability Scientific Reports 7 -, 2017
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Paci E Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectroscopy to Determine Structure and Structural Dynamics of Protein Complexes, 2017

Batchelor M, Wolny M, Knight PJ, Paci E, Kalverda AP, Peckham M Structural Dynamics in the Myosin 7A Single alpha-Helix Domain, 2017

O'Connor M, Paci E, McIntosh-Smith S, Glowacki DR Adaptive free energy sampling in multidimensional collective variable space using boxed molecular dynamics Faraday Discussions 195 395-419, 2016
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Gruszka DT, Mendonça CATF, Paci E, Whelan F, Hawkhead J, Potts JR, Clarke J Disorder drives cooperative folding in a multidomain protein Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 11841-11846, 2016

Papachristos K, Muench SP, Paci E Characterization of the flexibility of the peripheral stalk of prokaryotic rotary A-ATPases by atomistic simulations. Proteins 84 1203-1212, 2016
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Tych KM, Batchelor M, Hoffmann T, Wilson MC, Hughes ML, Paci E, Brockwell DJ, Dougan L Differential Effects of Hydrophobic Core Packing Residues for Thermodynamic and Mechanical Stability of a Hyperthermophilic Protein Langmuir 32 7392-7402, 2016
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Tych KM, Batchelor M, Hoffmann T, Wilson MC, Paci E, Brockwell DJ, Dougan L Tuning protein mechanics through an ionic cluster graft from an extremophilic protein Soft Matter 12 2688-2699, 2016
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Hickman SJ, Ross JF, Paci E Prediction of stability changes upon mutation in an icosahedral capsid Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics 83 1733-1741, 2015
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Gruszka DT, Whelan F, Farrance OE, Fung HKH, Paci E, Jeffries CM, Svergun DI, Baldock C, Baumann CG, Brockwell DJ, Potts JR, Clarke J Cooperative folding of intrinsically disordered domains drives assembly of a strong elongated protein Nature Communications 6 -, 2015
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Batchelor M, Gowdy J, Paci E Effect of external pulling forces on the length distribution of peptides BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-GENERAL SUBJECTS 1850 903-910, 2015

Batchelor M, Wolny M, Dougan L, Paci E, Knight PJ, Peckham M Myosin tails and singleα-helical domains Biochemical Society Transactions 43 58-63, 2015
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Farrance OE, Paci E, Radford SE, Brockwell DJ Extraction of accurate biomolecular parameters from single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments ACS Nano 9 1315-1324, 2015
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Richardson RA, Papachristos K, Read DJ, Harlen OG, Harrison M, Paci E, Muench SP, Harris SA Understanding the apparent stator-rotor connections in the rotary ATPase family using coarse-grained computer modeling. Proteins 82 3298-3311, 2014
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Wolny M, Batchelor M, Knight PJ, Paci E, Dougan L, Peckham M Stable singleα-helices are constant force springs in proteins. J Biol Chem 289 27825-27835, 2014
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Radou G, Dreyer FN, Tuma R, Paci E Functional dynamics of hexameric helicase probed by hydrogen exchange and simulation. Biophys J 107 983-990, 2014
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Krivov SV, Fenton H, Goldsmith PJ, Prasad RK, Fisher J, Paci E Optimal reaction coordinate as a biomarker for the dynamics of recovery from kidney transplant. PLoS Comput Biol 10 e1003685-, 2014
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Fu B, Sahakyan AB, Camilloni C, Tartaglia GG, Paci E, Caflisch A, Vendruscolo M, Cavalli A ALMOST: an all atom molecular simulation toolkit for protein structure determination. J Comput Chem 35 1101-1105, 2014
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Nogueira JJ, Wang Y, Martín F, Alcamí M, Glowacki DR, Shalashilin DV, Paci E, Fernández-Ramos A, Hase WL, Martínez-Núñez E, Vázquez SA Unraveling the factors that control soft landing of small silyl ions on fluorinated self-assembled monolayers Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118 10159-10169, 2014
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Rimratchada S, McLeish TCB, Radford SE, Paci E The role of high-dimensional diffusive search, stabilization, and frustration in protein folding. Biophys J 106 1729-1740, 2014
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Song CF, Papachristos K, Rawson S, Huss M, Wieczorek H, Paci E, Trinick J, Harrison MA, Muench SP Flexibility within the Rotor and Stators of the Vacuolar H+-ATPase PLOS ONE 8 -, 2013

Heidarsson PO, Otazo MR, Bellucci L, Mossa A, Imparato A, Paci E, Corni S, Di Felice R, Kragelund BB, Cecconi C Single-Molecule Folding Mechanism of an EF-Hand Neuronal Calcium Sensor STRUCTURE 21 1812-1821, 2013

Radou G, Enciso M, Krivov SV, Paci E Modulation of a protein free-energy landscape by circular permutation Journal of Physical Chemistry B 117 13743-13747, 2013
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Bellucci L, Corni S, Di Felice R, Paci E The Structure of Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 in Solution Revealed by Molecular Dynamics Simulations PLOS ONE 8 -, 2013

Settanni G, Serquera D, Marszalek PE, Paci E, Itzhaki LS Effects of Ligand Binding on the Mechanical Properties of Ankyrin Repeat Protein Gankyrin PLOS COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY 9 -, 2013

Monteiro DCF, Kamdoum WVP, Paci E Growth kinetics of bacterial pili from pairwise pilin association rates. PLoS One 8 e63065-, 2013
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Yew ZT, Paci E Simulation Studies of Force-Induced Unfolding, 2012
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Paci E Using models to design new bioinspired materials Biophysical Journal 103 1814-1815, 2012

Shalashilin DV, Beddard GS, Paci E, Glowacki DR Peptide kinetics from picoseconds to microseconds using boxed molecular dynamics: power law rate coefficients in cyclisation reactions. J Chem Phys 137 165102-, 2012
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Ikeda-Kobayashi A, Taniguchi Y, Brockwell DJ, Paci E, Sakane I, Kawata Y, Kawakami M Erratum: Prying open single GroES ring complexes by force reveals cooperativity across domains (Biophysical Journal (2012) 102 (1961-1968)) Biophysical Journal 102 2412-, 2012

Ikeda-Kobayashi A, Taniguchi Y, Brockwell DJ, Paci E, Kawakami M Prying open single GroES Ring complexes by force reveals cooperativity across domains Biophysical Journal 102 1961-1968, 2012
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Yew ZT, Olmsted PD, Paci E Free Energy Landscapes of Proteins: Insights from Mechanical Probes In Single Molecule Biophysics: Experiment and Theory , 2011

Ricchiuto P, Brukhno AV, Paci E, Auer S Communication: Conformation state diagram of polypeptides: A chain length induced alpha-beta transition JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135 -, 2011

Glowacki DR, Paci E, Shalashilin DV Boxed Molecular Dynamics: Decorrelation Time Scales and the Kinetic Master Equation J CHEM THEORY COMPUT 7 1244-1252, 2011

Schlierf M, Yew ZT, Rief M, Paci E Complex Unfolding Kinetics of Single-Domain Proteins in the Presence of Force BIOPHYS J 99 1620-1627, 2010

Mann RJ, Nasr NE, Sinfield JK, Paci E, Donnelly D The major determinant of exendin-4/glucagon-like peptide 1 differential affinity at the rat glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor N-terminal domain is a hydrogen bond from SER-32 of exendin-4 BRIT J PHARMACOL 160 1973-1984, 2010

Taniguchi Y, Khatri BS, Brockwell DJ, Paci E, Kawakami M Dynamics of the Coiled-Coil Unfolding Transition of Myosin Rod Probed by Dissipation Force Spectrum BIOPHYS J 99 257-262, 2010

Khatri BS, Yew ZT, Krivov S, McLeish T, Paci E Fluctuation power spectra reveal dynamical heterogeneity of peptides JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 133 -, 2010

Allen LR, Paci E Simulation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments: effect of the dyes on protein folding J PHYS-CONDENS MAT 22 -, 2010

Serquera D, Lee W, Settanni G, Marszalek PE, Paci E, Itzhaki LS Mechanical Unfolding of an Ankyrin Repeat Protein BIOPHYS J 98 1294-1301, 2010

Yew ZT, Schlierf M, Rief M, Paci E Direct evidence of the multidimensionality of the free-energy landscapes of proteins revealed by mechanical probes. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 81 031923-, 2010
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Glowacki DR, Paci E, Shalashilin DV Boxed Molecular Dynamics: A Simple and General Technique for Accelerating Rare Event Kinetics and Mapping Free Energy in Large Molecular Systems J PHYS CHEM B 113 16603-16611, 2009

Forman JR, Yew ZT, Qamar S, Sandford RN, Paci E, Clarke J Non-Native Interactions Are Critical for Mechanical Strength in PKD Domains STRUCTURE 17 1582-1590, 2009

Allen LR, Paci E Orientational averaging of dye molecules attached to proteins in Foumlrster resonance energy transfer measurements: Insights from a simulation study J CHEM PHYS 131 -, 2009

Brooks BR, Brooks CL, Mackerell AD, Nilsson L, Petrella RJ, Roux B, Won Y, Archontis G, Bartels C, Boresch S, Caflisch A, Caves L, Cui Q, Dinner AR, Feig M, Fischer S, Gao J, Hodoscek M, Im W, Kuczera K, Lazaridis T, Ma J, Ovchinnikov V, Paci E, Pastor RW, Post CB, Pu JZ, Schaefer M, Tidor B, Venable RM, Woodcock HL, Wu X, Yang W, York DM, Karplus M CHARMM: The Biomolecular Simulation Program J COMPUT CHEM 30 1545-1614, 2009

Allen LR, Krivov SV, Paci E Analysis of the Free-Energy Surface of Proteins from Reversible Folding Simulations PLOS COMPUT BIOL 5 -, 2009

Periole X, Allen LR, Tamiola K, Mark AE, Paci E Probing the Free Energy Landscape of the FBP28 WW Domain Using Multiple Techniques J COMPUT CHEM 30 1059-1068, 2009

Noronha M, Santos R, Paci E, Santos H, Macanita AL Fluorescence Lifetimes of Tyrosine Residues in Cytochrome c '' as Local Probes to Study Protein Unfolding J PHYS CHEM B 113 4466-4474, 2009

Yew ZT, Krivov S, Paci E Free-Energy Landscapes of Proteins in the Presence and Absence of Force J PHYS CHEM B 112 16902-16907, 2008

Yew ZT, McLeish T, Paci E New Dynamical Window onto the Landscape for Forced Protein Unfolding PHYS REV LETT 101 -, 2008

Verger D, Rose RJ, Paci E, Costakes G, Daviter T, Hultgren S, Remaut H, Ashcroft AE, Radford SE, Waksman G Structural Determinants of Polymerization Reactivity of the P pilus Adaptor Subunit PapF STRUCTURE 16 1724-1731, 2008

Feige MJ, Paci E Rate of loop formation in peptides: A simulation study J MOL BIOL 382 556-565, 2008

Rose RJ, Verger D, Daviter T, Remaut H, Paci E, Waksman G, Ashcroft AE, Radford SE Unraveling the molecular basis of subunit specificity in P pilus assembly by mass spectrometry P NATL ACAD SCI USA 105 12873-12878, 2008

Best RB, Paci E, Hummer G, Dudko OK Pulling direction as a reaction coordinate for the mechanical unfolding of single molecules J PHYS CHEM B 112 5968-5976, 2008

Rose RJ, Welsh TS, Waksman G, Ashcroft AE, Radford SE, Paci E Donor-strand exchange in chaperone-assisted pilus assembly revealed in atomic detail by molecular dynamics J MOL BIOL 375 908-919, 2008

Morton VL, Friel CT, Allen LR, Paci E, Radford SE The effect of increasing the stability of non-native interactions on the folding landscape of the bacterial immunity protein Im9 J MOL BIOL 371 554-568, 2007

Allen LR, Paci E Transition states for protein folding using molecular dynamics and experimental restraints JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER 19 -, 2007

Noronha M, Lima JC, Paci E, Santos H, Macanita AL Tracking local conformational changes of ribonuclease A using picosecond time-resolved fluorescence of the six tyrosine residues BIOPHYS J 92 4401-4414, 2007

West DK, Paci E, Olmsted PD Internal protein dynamics shifts the distance to the mechanical transition state PHYS REV E 74 -, 2006

Seeber M, Fanelli F, Paci E, Caflisch A Sequential unfolding of individual helices of bacterioopsin observed in molecular dynamics simulations of extraction from the purple membrane BIOPHYS J 91 3276-3284, 2006

West DK, Olmsted PD, Paci E Free energy for protein folding from nonequilibrium simulations using the Jarzynski equality. Journal of Chemical Physics 125 pp.204910-, 2006

Neelov IM, Adolf DB, McLeish TCB, Paci E Molecular dynamics simulation of dextran extension by constant force in single molecule AFM BIOPHYS J 91 3579-3588, 2006

West DK, Brockwell DJ, Paci E Prediction of the translocation kinetics of a protein from its mechanical properties BIOPHYS J 91 L51-L53, 2006

Geierhaas CD, Best RB, Paci E, Vendruscolo M, Clarke J Structural comparison of the two alternative transition states for folding of TI I27 BIOPHYS J 91 263-275, 2006

West DK, Olmsted PD, Paci E Mechanical unfolding revisited through a simple but realistic model J CHEM PHYS 124 -, 2006

Gsponer J, Hopearuoho H, Whittaker SBM, Spence GR, Moore GR, Paci E, Radford SE, Vendruscolo M Determination of an ensemble of structures representing the intermediate state of the bacterial immunity protein Im7 P NATL ACAD SCI USA 103 99-104, 2006

West DK, Brockwell DJ, Olmsted PD, Radford SE, Paci E Mechanical resistance of proteins explained using simple molecular models BIOPHYS J 90 287-297, 2006

Curcio R, Caflisch A, Paci E Change of the unbinding mechanism upon a mutation: a molecular dynamics study of an antibody-hapten complex. Protein Sci 14 2499-2514, 2005
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Paci E, Lindorff-Larsen K, Dobson CM, Karplus M, Vendruscolo M Transition state contact orders correlate with protein folding rates J MOL BIOL 352 495-500, 2005

Paci E, Greene LH, Jones RM, Smith LJ Characterization of the molten globule state of retinol-binding protein using a molecular dynamics simulation approach FEBS Journal 272 4826-4838, 2005
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Ng SP, Rounsevell RWS, Steward A, Geierhaas CD, Williams P, Paci E, Clarke J Mechanical unfolding of TNfn3: The unfolding pathway of a fnIII domain probed by protein engineering, AFM and MD simulation Methods in Molecular Biology 350 776-789, 2005
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Brockwell DJ, Beddard GS, Paci E, West DK, Olmsted PD, Smith DA, Radford SE Mechanically unfolding the small, topologically simple protein L BIOPHYS J 89 506-519, 2005

Cavalli A, Vendruscolo M, Paci E Comparison of sequence-based and structure-based energy functions for the reversible folding of a peptide. Biophys J 88 3158-3166, 2005
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Forman JR, Qamar S, Paci E, Sandford RN, Clarke J The remarkable mechanical strength of polycystin-1 supports a direct role in mechanotransduction Journal of Molecular Biology 349 861-871, 2005

Lindorff-Larsen K, Røgen P, Paci E, Vendruscolo M, Dobson CM Protein folding and the organization of the protein topology universe. Trends Biochem Sci 30 13-19, 2005
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Geierhaas CD, Paci E, Vendruscolo M, Clarke J Comparison of the transition states for folding of two Ig-like proteins from different superfamilies Journal of Molecular Biology 343 1111-1123, 2004
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Paci E, Gsponer J, Salvatella X, Vendruscolo M Molecular dynamics studies of the process of amyloid aggregation of peptide fragments of transthyretin. J Mol Biol 340 555-569, 2004
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Lindorff-Larsen K, Vendruscolo M, Paci E, Dobson CM Transition states for protein folding have native topologies despite high structural variability Nature Structural&Molecular Biology 11 443-449, 2004
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Paci E, Friel CT, Lindorff-Larsen K, Radford SE, Karplus M, Vendruscolo M Comparison of the transition state ensembles for folding of Im7 and Im9 determined using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with phi value restraints. Proteins 54 513-525, 2004
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Catflisch A, Paci E Molecular dynamics simulations to study protein folding and unfolding, 2004

Vendruscolo M, Paci E, Dobson CM, Karplus M Rare fluctuations of native proteins sampled by equilibrium hydrogen exchange J AM CHEM SOC 125 15686-15687, 2003

Vendruscolo M, Paci E, Karplus M, Dobson CM Structures and relative free energies of partially folded states of proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100 14817-14821, 2003
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Brockwell DJ, Paci E, Zinober RC, Beddard GS, Olmsted PD, Smith DA, Perham RN, Radford SE Pulling geometry defines the mechanical resistance of a beta-sheet protein (vol 10, pg 731, 2003) NAT STRUCT BIOL 10 872-872, 2003

Cavalli A, Haberthür U, Paci E, Caflisch A Fast protein folding on downhill energy landscape. Protein Sci 12 1801-1803, 2003
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Lindorff-Larsen K, Paci E, Serrano L, Dobson CM, Vendruscolo M Calculation of mutational free energy changes in transition states for protein folding. Biophys J 85 1207-1214, 2003
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Paci E, Cavalli A, Vendruscolo M, Caflisch A Analysis of the distributed computing approach applied to the folding of a small beta peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100 8217-8222, 2003
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Best RB, Fowler SB, Toca-Herrera JL, Steward A, Paci E, Clarke J Mechanical unfolding of a titin Ig domain: Structure of transition state revealed by combining atomic force microscopy, protein engineering and molecular dynamics simulations Journal of Molecular Biology 330 867-877, 2003
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Vendruscolo M, Paci E Protein folding: bringing theory and experiment closer together Current Opinion in Structural Biology 13 82-87, 2003
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Paci E, Clarke J, Steward A, Vendruscolo M, Karplus M Self-consistent determination of the transition state for protein folding: application to a fibronectin type III domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100 394-399, 2003
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Paci E, Vendruscolo M, Karplus M Validity of Go models: Comparison with a solvent-shielded empirical energy decomposition BIOPHYS J 83 3032-3038, 2002

Paci E, Vendruscolo M, Dobson CM, Karplus M Determination of a transition state at atomic resolution from protein engineering data. J Mol Biol 324 151-163, 2002
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Fowler SB, Best RB, Toca-Herrera JL, Rutherford TJ, Steward A, Paci E, Karplus M, Clarke J Mechanical unfolding of a titin Ig domain: Structure of unfolding intermediate revealed by combining AFM, molecular dynamics simulations, NMR and protein engineering Journal of Molecular Biology 322 841-849, 2002
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Vendruscolo M, Dokholyan NV, Paci E, Karplus M Small-world view of the amino acids that play a key role in protein folding PHYS REV E 65 -, 2002

Vendruscolo M, Dokholyan NV, Paci E, Karplus M Small-world view of the amino acids that play a key role in protein folding Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics 65 61910-, 2002
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Paci E, Vendruscolo M, Karplus M Native and non-native interactions along protein folding and unfolding pathways PROTEINS 47 379-392, 2002

Paci E High pressure simulations of biomolecules BBA-PROTEIN STRUCT M 1595 185-200, 2002

Paci E, Caflisch A, Pluckthun A, Karplus M Forces and energetics of hapten-antibody dissociation: A biased molecular dynamics simulation study J MOL BIOL 314 589-605, 2001

Paci E, Smith LJ, Dobson CM, Karplus M Exploration of partially unfolded states of human alpha-lactalbumin by molecular dynamics simulation J MOL BIOL 306 329-347, 2001

Vendruscolo M, Paci E, Dobson CM, Karplus M Three key residues form a critical contact network in a protein folding transition state Nature 409 641-645, 2001

Paci E, Karplus M Unfolding proteins by external forces and temperature: The importance of topology and energetics Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97 6521-6526, 2000
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Paci E, Karplus M Forced unfolding of fibronectin type 3 modules: An analysis by biased molecular dynamics simulations Journal of Molecular Biology 288 441-459, 1999
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Procacci P, Darden TA, Paci E, Marchi M ORAC: A molecular dynamics program to simulate complex molecular systems with realistic electrostatic interactions J COMPUT CHEM 18 1848-1862, 1997

Paci E, Velikson B On the volume of macromolecules BIOPOLYMERS 41 785-797, 1997

Paci E, Marchi M Intrinsic compressibility and volume compression in solvated proteins by molecular dynamics simulation at high pressure Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93 11609-11614, 1996
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Paci E, Marchi M Constant-pressure molecular dynamics techniques applied to complex molecular systems and solvated proteins Journal of Physical Chemistry B 100 4314-4322, 1996
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Falconi M, Gallimbeni R, Paci E Dimer asymmetry in superoxide dismutase studied by molecular dynamics simulation Journal of Computer - Aided Molecular Design 10 490-498, 1996

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Depaepe JM, Ryckaert JPO, Paci E, Ciccotti G SAMPLING OF MOLECULAR-CONFORMATIONS BY MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS TECHNIQUES Molecular Physics 79 515-522, 1993
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Paci E, Ciccotti G VACANCY MIGRATION RATES BY MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS WITH CONSTRAINTS Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 4 2173-2184, 1992
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Wolny M, Batchelor M, Bartlett GJ, Baker EG, Kurzawa M, Knight PJ, Dougan L, Takagi Y, Woolfson DN, Paci E, Peckham M Design and Characterization of Long and Stable de novo Single alpha-Helix Domains,