Faculty of Biological Sciences

Dr Stephen Muench

PhD 2004; BSc (Hons), Sheffield
Lecturer in Membrane Biology
School of Biomedical Sciences

Contact:  Astbury 6.106, +44(0) 113 34 34279, email address for  

You can read more about Dr Muench's interests here:



Research Interests

Structure, function and molecular mechanism of large protein complexes

Overall Goal

One of the major challenges for structural biology will be not just to resolve the structures of large protein complexes, but crucially also to appreciate the dynamics and conformational variability of such systems. These challenges are best met through a combination of techniques such as X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy, in particular time-resolved applications. My research involves the combination of these techniques in order to understand the structure/function relationship of a number of medically important targets, with a particular interest in membrane protiens.

Structure, function and molecular mechanism of the vacuolar ATPase

The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is an ATP-driven proton pump essential for the function of virtually all eukaryotic cells. It is a membrane-bound rotary motor, larger and more complex than the related ATPase synthase, and is responsible for acidifying intracellular compartments, energising membrane transport and pH homeostasis. Mutations in V-ATPase genes cause osteopetrosis, kidney disease and autophagic myopathy, and its involvement in osteoporosis and metastatic cancer means that controlling its activity with drugs has therapeutic potential.

 

 Figure1. A) M. sexta V-ATPase single particle cryo-EM reconstruction with subunit homologues fitted, B) Negative stain alalysis of the V-ATPase bound to a Pa1b-Strep-HRP complex, highlighted by an arrow (scale bar is 10nm). C) Slice through of the EM map of the catalytic V1 domain after accounting for flexibility in the complex.

Despite its importance, our understanding of the V-ATPase mechanism and regulation is poor and is a major block in therapeutic development, since structural data often underpins therapeutic drug design. We have now solved the first sub nm structure of the V-ATPase by single particle cryo-EM (Figure 1A), providing new insights into its structure and mechanism. Moreover, using a novel tagging mechanism we have studied the binding of the selective inhibitor PA1b to the V-ATPase (Figure 1B). Through accounting for the inherent flexibility within the system, in particular of the V1 and Vo domains its also possible improve the resulting resolution of the EM reconstruction (Figure 1C).

This complex motor is regulated in response to physiological signals indicating low energy, leading to reversible domain dissociation. The nature of the structural changes that occur in response to these signals is being studied by single particle cryo-EM and, where appropriate, crystallography.

 

Further Areas of Research

In addition to working on the V-ATPase we are working on a number of therapeutic targets both membrane bound and soluble and ranging from 120kDa->1MDa. Through single particle EM studies we have now been able to directly visualise the small molecule inhibitor binding site opening up new avaenues for structure based drug design on systems, intractable to other structural techniques (Figure 2).

 

 Figure 2. Cryo-EM map of an inhibitor-protein complex.

Centre Membership

Integrative Membrane Biology
Structural Molecular Biology

 

Faculty Research and Innovation



Studentship information

Undergraduate project topics:

  • Developing new inhibitors towards protozoan parasites.
  • Structural studies of membrane protiens

Postgraduate studentship areas:

  • Structural and biochemical analysis of large protein complexes, in particular membrane bound complexes.
  • The development of the time-resolved cryo-EM methodologies
  • Structure based inhibitor design of membrane proteins

See also:

Modules taught

BIOL5294M - MSc Bioscience Research Project Proposal
BIOL5392M - Bioscience MSc Research Project
BIOW5901X - Foundation module
BMSC1213 - Basic Laboratory and Scientific Skills 2
BMSC2224 - Principles of Drug Discovery
BMSC2230 - Topics in Pharmacology
BMSC3140 - Advanced Scientific Skills
BMSC3301 - Research Project in Biomedical Sciences
BMSC5301M - Advanced Research Topics
BMSC5382M - Extended Research Project

Centre membership: The Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology

Mr Tony Palmer  (Visiting Research Fellow)

Postgraduates

Simon Davies (Primary supervisor) 50% FTE
Sophie Hesketh (Primary supervisor) 50% FTE
Rachel Johnson (Primary supervisor) 50% FTE
Emily Caseley (Co-supervisor) 30% FTE
Hattapark Dejakaisaya (Co-supervisor) 50% FTE
Brendan Farrell (Co-supervisor) 33% FTE
Wanjun Qi (Co-supervisor) 50% FTE
Faheem Shaik (Co-supervisor) 30% FTE
Vlad Vasilca (Co-supervisor) 25% FTE
Craig Wilkinson (Co-supervisor) 50% FTE

Muench SP Everyone needs good neighbours– the intricate relationship between the acetylcholine-receptor channel and its membrane environment IUCrJ 4 306-307, 2017
DOI:10.1107/S2052252517009058

Rawson S, McPhillie MJ, Johnson RM, Fishwick CWG, Muench SP The potential use of single-particle electron microscopy as a tool for structure-based inhibitor design Acta Crystallographica Section D: Structural Biology 73 534-540, 2017
DOI:10.1107/S2059798317004077
View abstract

Caseley EA, Muench SP, Jiang LH Conformational changes during human P2X7 receptor activation examined by structural modelling and cysteine-based cross-linking studies Purinergic Signalling 13 135-141, 2017
DOI:10.1007/s11302-016-9553-0
View abstract

Beales PA, Khan S, Muench SP, Jeuken LJC Durable vesicles for reconstitution of membrane proteins in biotechnology Biochemical Society Transactions 45 15-26, 2017
DOI:10.1042/BST20160019
View abstract

Ceasar SA, Baker A, Muench SP, Ignacimuthu S, Baldwin SA The conservation of phosphate-binding residues among PHT1 transporters suggests that distinct transport affinities are unlikely to result from differences in the phosphate-binding site Biochemical Society Transactions 44 1541-1548, 2016
DOI:10.1042/BST20160016
View abstract

Caseley EA, Muench SP, Fishwick CW, Jiang LH Structure-based identification and characterisation of structurally novel human P2X7 receptor antagonists Biochemical Pharmacology 116 130-139, 2016
DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2016.07.020
View abstract

Papachristos K, Muench SP, Paci E Characterization of the flexibility of the peripheral stalk of prokaryotic rotary A-ATPases by atomistic simulations. Proteins 84 1203-1212, 2016
DOI:10.1002/prot.25066
View abstract

McPhillie M, Zhou Y, El Bissati K, Dubey J, Lorenzi H, Capper M, Lukens AK, Hickman M, Muench S, Verma SK, Weber CR, Wheeler K, Gordon J, Sanders J, Moulton H, Wang K, Kim T-K, He Y, Santos T, Woods S, Lee P, Donkin D, Kim E, Fraczek L, Lykins J, Esaa F, Alibana-Clouser F, Dovgin S, Weiss L, Brasseur G, Wirth D, Kent M, Hood L, Meunieur B, Roberts CW, Hasnain SS, Antonyuk SV, Fishwick C, McLeod R New paradigms for understanding and step changes in treating active and chronic, persistent apicomplexan infections. Sci Rep 6 29179-, 2016
DOI:10.1038/srep29179
View abstract

Lee SC, Knowles TJ, Postis VLG, Jamshad M, Parslow RA, Lin YP, Goldman A, Sridhar P, Overduin M, Muench SP, Dafforn TR A method for detergent-free isolation of membrane proteins in their local lipid environment Nature Protocols 11 1149-1162, 2016
DOI:10.1038/nprot.2016.070
View abstract

Palmer AJ, Baker A, Muench SP The varied functions of aluminium-activated malate transporters–much more than aluminium resistance Biochemical Society Transactions 44 856-862, 2016
DOI:10.1042/BST20160027
View abstract

Rawson S, Harrison MA, Muench SP Rotating with the brakes on and other unresolved features of the vacuolar ATPase Biochemical Society Transactions 44 851-855, 2016
DOI:10.1042/BST20160043
View abstract

Qi W, Baldwin SA, Muench SP, Baker A P<inf>i</inf>sensing and signalling: From prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells Biochemical Society Transactions 44 766-773, 2016
DOI:10.1042/BST20160026
View abstract

Parmar MJ, Lousa CDM, Muench SP, Goldman A, Postis VLG Artificial membranes for membrane protein purification, functionality and structure studies. Biochem Soc Trans 44 877-882, 2016
DOI:10.1042/BST20160054
View abstract

Muench SP Guest Editor’s Introduction: Single Particle Cryo-EM, from sample to reconstruction Methods 100 1-2, 2016
DOI:10.1016/j.ymeth.2016.04.006

Thompson RF, Walker M, Siebert CA, Muench SP, Ranson NA An introduction to sample preparation and imaging by cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology Methods 100 3-15, 2016
DOI:10.1016/j.ymeth.2016.02.017
View abstract

Rawson S, Iadanza MG, Ranson NA, Muench SP Methods to account for movement and flexibility in cryo-EM data processing Methods 100 35-41, 2016
DOI:10.1016/j.ymeth.2016.03.011
View abstract

Smith GA, Howell GJ, Phillips C, Muench SP, Ponnambalam S, Harrison MA Extracellular and luminal pH regulation by vacuolar H<sup>+</sup>-ATPase isoform expression and targeting to the plasma membrane and endosomes Journal of Biological Chemistry 291 8500-8515, 2016
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M116.723395
View abstract

Rawson S, Davies S, Lippiat JD, Muench SP The changing landscape of membrane protein structural biology through developments in electron microscopy Molecular Membrane Biology 33 12-22, 2016
DOI:10.1080/09687688.2016.1221533
View abstract

Khan S, Li M, Muench SP, Jeuken LJC, Beales PA Durable proteo-hybrid vesicles for the extended functional lifetime of membrane proteins in bionanotechnology Chemical Communications 52 11020-11023, 2016
DOI:10.1039/c6cc04207d
View abstract

Bain J, Ruiz-Pérez L, Kennerley AJ, Muench SP, Thompson R, Battaglia G, Staniland SS In situ formation of magnetopolymersomes via electroporation for MRI Scientific Reports 5 -, 2015
DOI:10.1038/srep14311
View abstract

Wrighton DC, Muench SP, Lippiat JD Mechanism of inhibition of mouse Slo3 (K&lt;inf&gt;Ca&lt;/inf&gt;5.1) potassium channels by quinine, quinidine and barium British Journal of Pharmacology 172 4355-4363, 2015
DOI:10.1111/bph.13214
View abstract

Caseley EA, Muench SP, Baldwin SA, Simmons K, Fishwick CW, Jiang LH Docking of competitive inhibitors to the P2X7 receptor family reveals key differences responsible for changes in response between rat and human Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 25 3164-3167, 2015
DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2015.06.001
View abstract

Rawson S, Phillips C, Huss M, Tiburcy F, Wieczorek H, Trinick J, Harrison MA, Muench SP Structure of the vacuolar H<sup>+</sup>-ATPase rotary motor reveals new mechanistic insights Structure 23 461-471, 2015
DOI:10.1016/j.str.2014.12.016
View abstract

Henriquez FL, Campbell SJ, Sundararaj BK, Cano A, Muench SP, Roberts CW The Acanthamoeba Shikimate Pathway has a Unique Molecular Arrangement and is Essential for Aromatic Amino Acid Biosynthesis Protist 166 93-105, 2015
DOI:10.1016/j.protis.2014.12.001
View abstract

Postis V, Rawson S, Mitchell JK, Lee SC, Parslow RA, Dafforn TR, Baldwin SA, Muench SP The use of SMALPs as a novel membrane protein scaffold for structure study by negative stain electron microscopy Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes 1848 496-501, 2015
DOI:10.1016/j.bbamem.2014.10.018
View abstract

Magee T, Henderson P, Baker A, Postis V, Muench S A Tribute to Stephen Allan Baldwin Molecular membrane biology 32 33-34, 2015
DOI:10.3109/09687688.2015.1031834

Baker A, Ceasar SA, Palmer AJ, Paterson JB, Qi W, Muench SP, Baldwin SA Replace, reuse, recycle: Improving the sustainable use of phosphorus by plants Journal of Experimental Botany 66 3523-3540, 2015
DOI:10.1093/jxb/erv210
View abstract

Caseley EA, Muench SP, Roger S, Mao H-J, Baldwin SA, Jiang L-H Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P2X receptor genes: association with diseases, impact on receptor functions and potential use as diagnosis biomarkers. Int J Mol Sci 15 13344-13371, 2014
DOI:10.3390/ijms150813344
View abstract

Witola WH, Liu SR, Montpetit A, Welti R, Hypolite M, Roth M, Zhou Y, Mui E, Cesbron-Delauw M-F, Fournie GJ, Cavailles P, Bisanz C, Boyer K, Withers S, Noble AG, Swisher CN, Heydemann PT, Rabiah P, Muench SP, McLeod R ALOX12 in human toxoplasmosis. Infect Immun 82 2670-2679, 2014
DOI:10.1128/IAI.01505-13
View abstract

Muench SP, Rawson S, Eyraud V, Delmas AF, Da Silva P, Phillips C, Trinick J, Harrison MA, Gressent F, Huss M PA1b inhibitor binding to subunits c and e of the vacuolar ATPase reveals its insecticidal mechanism. J Biol Chem 289 16399-16408, 2014
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.541250
View abstract

Zhou Y, Fomovska A, Muench S, Lai BS, Mui E, McLeod R Spiroindolone That Inhibits PfATPase4 Is a Potent, CidalInhibitor of Toxoplasma gondii Tachyzoites in Vitro and in Vivo Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 58 1789-1792, 2014
DOI:10.1128/AAC.02225-13
View abstract

Wilkinson C, McPhillie MJ, Zhou Y, Woods S, Afanador GA, Rawson S, Khaliq F, Prigge ST, Roberts CW, Rice DW, McLeod R, Fishwick CW, Muench SP The benzimidazole based drugs show good activity against T. gondii but poor activity against its proposed enoyl reductase enzyme target. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 24 911-916, 2014
DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.12.066
View abstract

Muench SP, Scheres SHW, Huss M, Phillips C, Vitavska O, Wieczorek H, Trinick J, Harrison MA Subunit positioning and stator filament stiffness in regulation and power transmission in the V1 motor of the Manduca sexta V-ATPase. J Mol Biol 426 286-300, 2014
DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2013.09.018
View abstract

Zhou Y, Fomovska A, Muench S, Lai B-S, Mui E, McLeod R Spiroindolone that inhibits PfATPase4 is a potent, cidal inhibitor of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58 1789-1792, 2014
DOI:10.1128/AAC.02225-13
View abstract

Richardson RA, Papachristos K, Read DJ, Harlen OG, Harrison M, Paci E, Muench SP, Harris SA Understanding the apparent stator-rotor connections in the rotary ATPase family using coarse-grained computer modeling Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics 82 3298-3311, 2014
DOI:10.1002/prot.24680
View abstract

Afanador GA, Muench SP, McPhillie M, Fomovska A, Schön A, Zhou Y, Cheng G, Stec J, Freundlich JS, Shieh H-M, Anderson JW, Jacobus DP, Fidock DA, Kozikowski AP, Fishwick CW, Rice DW, Freire E, McLeod R, Prigge ST Discrimination of potent inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase by a thermal shift assay. Biochemistry 52 9155-9166, 2013
DOI:10.1021/bi400945y
View abstract

Song CF, Papachristos K, Rawson S, Huss M, Wieczorek H, Paci E, Trinick J, Harrison MA, Muench SP Flexibility within the Rotor and Stators of the Vacuolar H+-ATPase PLOS ONE 8 -, 2013
DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0082207

Stec J, Fomovska A, Afanador GA, Muench SP, Zhou Y, Lai BS, ElBissati K, Hickman MR, Lee PJ, Leed SE, Auschwitz JM, Sommervile C, Woods S, Roberts CW, Rice D, Prigge ST, Mcleod R, Kozikowski AP Modification of triclosan scaffold in search of improved inhibitors for enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) Reductase in Toxoplasma gondii ChemMedChem 8 1138-1160, 2013
DOI:10.1002/cmdc.201300050
View abstract

Muench SP, Stec J, Zhou Y, Afanador GA, McPhillie MJ, Hickman MR, Lee PJ, Leed SE, Auschwitz JM, Prigge ST, Rice DW, McLeod R Development of a triclosan scaffold which allows for adaptations on both the A- and B-ring for transport peptides BIOORGANIC&MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS 23 3551-3555, 2013
DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.04.035

Cheng G, Muench SP, Zhou Y, Afanador GA, Mui EJ, Fomovska A, Lai BS, Prigge ST, Woods S, Roberts CW, Hickman MR, Lee PJ, Leed SE, Auschwitz JM, Rice DW, McLeod R Design, synthesis, and biological activity of diaryl ether inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii enoyl reductase Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 23 2035-2043, 2013
DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.02.019
View abstract

Stec J, Kozikowski AP, Fomovska A, Zhou Y, Lai B-S, ElBissati K, Mcleod R, Afanador GA, Prigge ST, Muench SP, Hickman MR, Lee PJ, Leed SE, Auschwitz JM, Sommervile C, Woods S, Roberts CW, Rice D Modification of Triclosan Scaffold in Search of Improved Inhibitors for Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) Reductase in Toxoplasma gondii ChemMedChem -, 2013
DOI:10.1002/cmdc.201300050
View abstract

Cheng G, Muench SP, Zhou Y, Mui EJ, Fomovska A, Lai BS, McLeod R, Afanador GA, Prigge ST, Woods S, Roberts CW, Rice DW, Hickman MR, Lee PJ, Leed SE, Auschwitz JM Design, synthesis, and biological activity of diaryl ether inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii enoyl reductase Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters -, 2013
DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.02.019
View abstract

Fomovska A, Huang Q, El Bissati K, Mui EJ, Witola WH, Cheng G, Zhou Y, Sommerville C, Roberts CW, Bettis S, Prigge ST, Afanador GA, Hickman MR, Lee PJ, Leed SE, Auschwitz JM, Pieroni M, Stec J, Muench SP, Rice DW, Kozikowski AP, McLeod R Novel N-Benzoyl-2-Hydroxybenzamide Disrupts Unique Parasite Secretory Pathway ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY 56 2666-2682, 2012
DOI:10.1128/AAC.06450-11

Muench SP, Trinick J, Harrison MA Structural divergence of the rotary ATPases Q REV BIOPHYS 44 311-356, 2011
DOI:10.1017/S0033583510000338

Bockelmann S, Menche D, Rudolph S, Bender T, Grond S, von Zezschwitz P, Muench SP, Wieczorek H, Huss M Archazolid A Binds to the Equatorial Region of the c-Ring of the Vacuolar H+-ATPase J BIOL CHEM 285 38304-38314, 2010
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M110.137539

Hutson SL, Mui E, Kinsley K, Witola WH, Behnke MS, El Bissati K, Muench SP, Rohrman B, Liu SR, Wollmann R, Ogata Y, Sarkeshik A, Yates JR, McLeod R T. gondii RP Promoters&Knockdown Reveal Molecular Pathways Associated with Proliferation and Cell-Cycle Arrest PLOS ONE 5 -, 2010
DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0014057

Tipparaju SK, Muench SP, Mui EJ, Ruzheinikov SN, Lu JZ, Hutson SL, Kirisits MJ, Prigge ST, Roberts CW, Henriquez FL, Kozikowski AP, Rice DW, McLeod RL Identification and Development of Novel Inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii Enoyl Reductase J MED CHEM 53 6287-6300, 2010
DOI:10.1021/jm9017724

Tan TG, Mui E, Cong H, Witola WH, Montpetit A, Muench SP, Sidney J, Alexander J, Sette A, Grigg ME, Maewal A, McLeod R Identification of T-gondii epitopes, adjuvants, and host genetic factors that influence protection of mice and humans VACCINE 28 3977-3989, 2010
DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.03.028

Muench SP, Huss M, Song CF, Phillips C, Wieczorek H, Trinick J, Harrison MA Cryo-electron Microscopy of the Vacuolar ATPase Motor Reveals its Mechanical and Regulatory Complexity J MOL BIOL 386 989-999, 2009
DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2009.01.014

Mui EJ, Schiehser GA, Milhous WK, Hsu HH, Roberts CW, Kirisits M, Muench S, Rice D, Dubey JP, Fowble JW, Rathod PK, Queener SF, Liu SR, Jacobus DP, McLeod R Novel Triazine JPC-2067-B Inhibits Toxoplasma gondii In Vitro and In Vivo PLOS NEGLECT TROP D 2 -, 2008
DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000190

Henriquez FL, Ingram PR, Muench SP, Rice DW, Roberts CW Molecular basis for resistance of Acanthamoeba tubulins to all major classes of antitubulin compounds ANTIMICROB AGENTS CH 52 1133-1135, 2008
DOI:10.1128/AAC.00355-07

Lu JZ, Muench SP, Allary M, Campbell S, Roberts CW, Mui E, Mcleod RL, Rice DW, Prigge ST Type I and type II fatty acid biosynthesis in Eimeria tenella: enoyl reductase activity and structure PARASITOLOGY 134 1949-1962, 2007
DOI:10.1017/S0031182007003319

Muench SP, Prigge ST, McLeod R, Rafferty JB, Kirisits MJ, Roberts CW, Mui EJ, Rice DW Studies of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase and implications for the development of antiparasitic agents ACTA CRYSTALLOGR D 63 328-338, 2007
DOI:10.1107/S0907444906053625

Ferguson DJP, Campbell SA, Henriquez FL, Phan L, Mui E, Richards TA, Muench SP, Allary M, Lu JZ, Prigge ST, Tomley F, Shirley MW, Rice DW, McLeod R, Roberts CW Enzymes of type II fatty acid synthesis and apicoplast differentiation and division in Eimeria tenella INT J PARASITOL 37 33-51, 2007
DOI:10.1016/j.ijpara.2006.10.003

Muench SP, Xu L, Sedelnikova SE, Rice DW The essential GTPase YphC displays a major domain rearrangement associated with nucleotide binding P NATL ACAD SCI USA 103 12359-12364, 2006
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0602585103

Muench SP, Prigge ST, Zhu LQ, Kirisits MJ, Roberts CW, Wernimont S, McLeod R, Rice DW Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the Toxoplasma gondii enoyl reductase ACTA CRYSTALLOGR F 62 604-606, 2006
DOI:10.1107/S1744309106018112

Xu L, Muench SP, Roujeinikova A, Sedelnikova SE, Rice DW Cloning, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the Bacillus subtilis GTPase YphC-GDP complex Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 62 435-437, 2006
DOI:10.1107/S1744309106011456
View abstract

Ferguson DJP, Henriquez FL, Kirisits MJ, Muench SP, Prigge ST, Rice DW, Roberts CW, McLeod RL Maternal inheritance and stage-specific variation of the apicoplast in Toxoplasma gondii during development in the intermediate and definitive host EUKARYOT CELL 4 814-826, 2005
DOI:10.1128/EC.4.4.814-826.2005

Samuel BU, Hearn B, Mack D, Wender P, Rothbard J, Kirisits MJ, Mui E, Wernimont S, Roberts CW, Muench SP, Rice DW, Prigge ST, Law AB, McLeod R Delivery of antimicrobials into parasites P NATL ACAD SCI USA 100 14281-14286, 2003
DOI:10.1073/pnas.2436169100

Muench SP, Rafferty JB, Mcleod R, Rice DW, Prigge ST Expression, purification and crystallization of the Plasmodium falciparum enoyl reductase ACTA CRYSTALLOGR D 59 1246-1248, 2003
DOI:10.1107/S0907444903008813

Aunpad R, Muench SP, Baker PJ, Sedelnikova S, Panbangred W, Doukyu N, Aono R, Rice DW Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies on the class II cholesterol oxidase from Burkholderia cepacia containing bound flavin ACTA CRYSTALLOGR D 58 2182-2183, 2002
DOI:10.1107/S0907444902017432

McLeod R, Muench SP, Rafferty JB, Kyle DE, Mui EJ, Kirisits MJ, Mack DG, Roberts CW, Samuel BU, Lyons RE, Dorris M, Milhous WK, Rice DW Triclosan inhibits the growth of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii by inhibition of apicomplexan Fab I INT J PARASITOL 31 109-113, 2001