Faculty of Biological Sciences

Prof Les Firbank

Bsc(Hons) Imperial College, PhD University of East Anglia. FSB, ARCS
Professor of Sustainable Agriculture
School of Biology

Background: My first degree was in zoology, followed by a PhD in plant population dynamics. After a few years teaching biology at what is now Anglia Ruskin University, I joined the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology in 1991, looking at large-scale interactions between agriculture and biodiversity. I led the UK Farm Scale Evaluations of GM crops, the largest agro-ecological experiment undertaken. I moved to become Head of North Wyke Research in Devon, which focuses on environmental aspects of livestock farming, and has now merged with Rothamsted Research. I was appointed as Chair in Sustainable Agriculture in February 2014, after being appointed Visiting Professor to Leeds University in 2010, and joining the staff in 2011, working on the EXPEER project, that is developing an integrated ecosystems research infrastructure across Europe.

Contact:  Miall 9.17 | +44(0) 113 34 32859 | email address for  

Research Interests

Sustainable land use

My research has always been influenced by my own farming background, and so has focussed strongly on interactions between farming and the environment. My earliest studies were on weed population dynamics, which led to much larger studies looking at different farming systems on biodiversity and agronomy; these systems included organic and GM crops. I was also interested in large scale impacts of land use on the environment and how to measure them, both at the national and European scale. At North Wyke, I worked on the ecosystem services delivered by livestock agriculture, and how to measure and manipulate them experimentally.

I am working on the European project EXPEER, that is integrating ecosystem research infrastructures across Europe be developing shared access to protocols, data and facilities. This work is an essential step in developing a consistent and integrated view of how our planet is changing. I am also developing a project looking at how biodiversity and ecosystem functions change over spatial scales.

I am researching the idea of sustainable intensification, of increasing both food production and environmental quality of agricultural land at a time when the climate is beocme more challenging, and energy and nutrient prices are rising. I'm leading a White Rose project Towards more nutrient, carbon and energy-efficient agricultural systems that seeks to develop a new experimental approach to sustainable agriculture research in the Universities of Leeds, Sheffield and York, along with FERA and the Syngenta Centre at the University of Manchester. This project is collecting a wide range of ecological and production parameters, to show how it is possible to integrate fundamental research, innovative sensing technology and agronomic expertise to develop and test potential farming systems for a future in which energy, water and nutrients are much more valuable than at the moment.

Sustainable intensification is not just an issue for the countryside; it is also an issue for towns and cities. I was one of the team that put together the Leeds University garden explaining ecosystem services, that won the gold medal at the 2012 Chelsea Flower Show and am increasingly interested in the interplay between supply of and demand for ecosystem services in urban areas.

I am interested in the wider development of sustainable land management, and engage with both industry and public policy.

External appointments:   Member Advisory Committee on Releases to the Environment (ACRE); Defra Demonstration Test Catchment Science Advisory Committee;  Independent Director, Assured Food Standards Ltd.  Editorial boards Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment; International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability and Journal of Environmental Management.

Publications

Selected outputs (2004 on)

REFEREED JOURNALS

2013

Firbank, L.G., Elliott, J., Drake, B., Cao, Y & Gooday, R. (2013) Evidence of sustainable intensification among British farms. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 173 58-65.

Firbank, L.G., Bradbury, R.B., McCracken, D.I. & Stoate, C. (2013) Delivering multiple ecosystem services from enclosed farmland in the UK. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 166 65-75.

2012


Firbank, L. (2012) Pathways to global sustainable agriculture. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. 10 1-4.

2011

Brooks, D.R., Storkey, J., Clark, S.J., Firbank, L.G., Petit, S. & Woiwod, I.R. (2011) Trophic links between functional groups of arable plants and beetles are stable at a national scale. Journal of Animal Ecology 81 4-13.

Scholefield, P., Firbank, L., Butler, S., Norris, K., Jones L.M. & Petit, S., (2011). Modelling the European Farmland Birds Indicator in response to forecast land-use change in Europe. Ecological Indicators 11 46-51.

2010

Pilgrim, E.S., Macleod, C.J.A., Blackwell, M.S.A., Bol, R., Hogan, D.V., Chadwick, D.R., Cardenas, L., Misselbrook, T.H., Haygarth, P.M., Brazier, R.E., Hobbs, P., Hodgson, C.,  Jarvis, S., Dungait, J., Murray, P.J. & Firbank, L.G.  (2010). Interactions among agricultural production and other ecosystem services delivered from European temperate grassland systems. Advances in Agronomy109, 117-154.

2009

Firbank, L. (2009) Commentary: It's not enough to develop agriculture that minimises environmental impact. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability7 151-152

Norton, L., Johnson, P., Joys, A., Stuart, R., Chamberlain, D., Feber, R., Firbank, L., Manley, W., Wolfe, M., Hart, B., Mathews, F., Macdonald, D. & Fuller, R.J. (2009) Consequences of organic and non-organic farming practices for field, farm and landscape complexity. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 129 221-227

2008

Firbank L.G. (2008) Assessing the ecological impacts of bioenergy projects. Bio-Energy Research 1 12-19

Firbank, L., Petit, S., Smart, S., Blain, A & Fuller, R. (2008). Assessing the impacts of agricultural intensification on biodiversity. Phil. Trans Royal Soc 363 777-787

Henle, K., Alard, D., Clitherow, J., Cobb, P., Firbank, L., Kull, T., McCracken, D., Moritz, R., Mühle, H., Niemelä, J., Nowicki, P., Rebane, M., Wascher, D., Watt A., & Young, J.  (2008). Identifying and managing the conflicts between agriculture and biodiversity conservation in Europe – a review. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 124 60-71.

 

2006

Firbank, L.G., Rothery, P., May, M.J., Clark, S.J., Scott, R.J., Stuart, R.C., Boffey, C.W.H., Brooks, D.R., Champion, G.T.,  Haughton, A.J., Hawes, C., Heard, M.S., Dewar, A.M., Perry, J.N.  and Squire, G.R. (2006). Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant cropping systems on weed seedbanks in following years Biology Letters  2, 140-143

Gibbons, D.W., Bohan, D.A., Rothery, P., Stuart, R., Haughton, A.J., Scott, R.J., Wilson, J.D., Perry, J.N., Clark, S.J. , Dawson, R.J.G. and Firbank, L.G. (2006). Weed seed resources for birds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops Proc Royal Soc B 273 1921-1928

Smart, S.M., Marrs, R.H., Le Duc, M.G., Thompson, K., Bunce, R.G.H., Firbank, L.G. & Rossall, M.J. (2006) Spatial relationships between intensive land cover and residual plant species diversity in temperate, farmed landscapes Journal of Applied Ecology 43, 1128-1137

Smart, S.M., Thompson, K., Marrs, R.H., Le Duc, M.G. & Firbank, L.G. (2006) Biodiversity loss and biotic homogenization across human-modified ecosystems Proc R Soc B273, 2659-2665.

2005

Brooks, D.R., Clark, S.J., Perry, J.N., Bohan, D.A., Champion, G.T., Firbank, L.G., Haughton, A.J., Hawes, C., Heard, M.S. & Woiwod, I.P. (2005). Invertebrate biodiversity in maize following withdrawal of triazine herbicides Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B, 272, 1497-1502.

Firbank, L.G. (2005) Striking a new balance between agricultural production and biodiversity. Annals of Applied Biology 146 163-175.

Firbank, L., Lonsdale, M. & Poppy, G. (2005). Re-assessing the environmental risks of GM crops. Nature Biotechnology 23 1475-1476

Fuller, R.J., Norton, L.R., Feber, R.E., Johnson, P.J.,  Chamberlain, D.E., Joys, A.C., Mathews, F., Stuart, R.C, Townsend, M.C, Manley, W.J, Wolfe, M.S., Macdonald, D.W., Firbank, L.G. (2005) Benefits of organic farming vary among taxa. Biology Letters 1 431-434.

Smart, S.M., Bunce, R.G.H., Marrs, R., LeDuc, M., Firbank, L.G., Maskell, L.C., Scott, W.A., Thompson, K. & Walker, K. (2005). Large-scale changes in the abundance of common higher plant species across Britain between 1978, 1990 and 1998 as a consequence of human activity: tests of hypothesised changes in trait representation Biological Conservation 124, 355-371.

2004

Perry, J.N. Firbank, L.G. Champion G.T., Clark, S.J. Heard, M.S. May, M.J. Hawes, C.. Squire G. R, Rothery P., Woiwod I.& Pidgeon J. (2004)  Ban on triazine herbicides likely to reduce but not negate relative benefits of GMHT maize cropping Nature 428 313-316

Pywell, R.F., Warman, E.A. Sparks, T.H., Greatorex-Davies, J.N. Walker, K.J. Meek, W.R., Carvell, C. Petit, S. Firbank, L.G. (2004). Assessing habitat quality for butterflies on intensively managed arable farmland. Biological Conservation 118 313-325.

 

BOOKS AND CHAPTERS

Armenteras, D., Finlayson, C.M., Agard, J., Butchart, S.H.M., Carino, C., Cheung, W.W.L., Collen, B., Firbank, L.G., Hockings, M., Hoft, R., Kitzes, J., McGeoch, M.A., Prip, C., Oldfield, T.E.E., Redford, K.H. & Toivonen, H. (Due 2012) Chapter 5: Biodiversity. In UN Global Environmental Outlook 5. United Nations.

Firbank L (2012) Assessing the environmental risks and opportunities of bioenergy cropping. In: Sustainable Bioenergy and Bioproducts (Eds Gopalakrishnan, K., van Leeuwen, J & Brown R.), pp 189-212. Springer-Verlag, London.

Firbank, L.G., Bradbury, R.B., McCracken, D.I. & Stoate, C. (2011). Enclosed Farmland. In: UK National Ecosystem Assessment: Technical Report. pp 197-240. UK National Ecosystem Assessment. UNEP – WCMC, Cambridge.

UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.Anderson, M. & Firbank L. (co-ordinating lead authors) (2009). Setting the stage. In: Agriculture at a crossroads: International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and technology for Development. Volume IV. North America and Europe. (Eds McIntyre, B.D., Herren, H.R., Wakhungu, J & Watson, R.T.), pp 1-19. Island Press, New York.

Firbank, L., Harrison, H.M, Harrison N., Haley, D. & Griffith, B. (2009). A Story of Becoming: Landscape Creation Through an Art/Science Dynamic. What is Land For? The Food, Fuel and Climate Change Debate (eds M. Winter, M. Lobley), pp 233-246. Earthscan, London.

Feber, R.E., Asteraki, L. & Firbank L.G. (2007). Can farming and wildlife coexist? In: Key topics in Conservation Biology (Eds Macdonald, D.W. & Service, K.), pp  239-252. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

OTHER OUPUTS

Panel member I'm A Scientist, Get Me Out Of Here! Debate on GM. June-July 2012 http://imascientist.org.uk/

Firbank, L, Kunin, W, Mitchell, G. & Slack R. (2013) Lead scientists, University of Leeds gold-medal winning exhibit at Chelsea Flower Show 2012; Gardening for Champions. http://gardenchampions.leeds.ac.uk/

Firbank L. (2011) Farming in the future: Nature versus necessity. Global Food Security Blog, BBSRC, http://www.foodsecurity.ac.uk/blog/index.php/2011/04/farming-in-the-future-nature-versus-necessity/

Firbank, L. (2007). Sowing the seeds of farming's future. BBC Green Room http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7092407.stm

 

Current Projects

Defra Sustainable Intensification Platform (Project 1) (website to follow)

MycoRhizaSoils (Website to follow)

Exprimentation in Ecosystem Research (ExpeER)

 

 

Faculty Research and Innovation


Studentship information

Postgraduate studentship areas:

  • Sustainable agriculture; ecological monitoring; ecosystem services; land use

See also:

Modules managed

BLGY2192 - Experimental Design and Analysis

Modules taught

BLGY1117 - Ecology in a Changing World
BLGY2100/2301 - Level 2 Tutorials
BLGY2192 - Experimental Design and Analysis

Postgraduates

David Brooks  

Fraser MD; Vale JE; Firbank LG Effect on habitat diversity of organic conversion within the less favored areas of England and Wales Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 38 243-261, 2014
DOI:10.1080/21683565.2013.849320
View abstract

Firbank LG; Elliott J; Drake B; Cao Y; Gooday R Evidence of sustainable intensification among British farms Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 173 58-65, 2013
DOI:10.1016/j.agee.2013.04.010
View abstract

Brooks DR; Storkey J; Clark SJ; Firbank LG; Petit S; Woiwod IP Trophic links between functional groups of arable plants and beetles are stable at a national scale. J Anim Ecol 81 4-13, 2012
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2011.01897.x
View abstract

Firbank LG Assessing the environmental risks and opportunities of bioenergy cropping In Sustainable bioenergy and bioproducts , 2012
View abstract

Firbank LG; Bradbury RB; McCracken DI; Stoate C Delivering multiple ecosystem services from Enclosed Farmland in the UK Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment -, 2012
View abstract

Firbank LG Commentary: Pathways to global sustainable agriculture INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY 10 1-4, 2012
DOI:10.1080/14735903.2012.621747

Firbank LG Managing agricultural landscapes for production and biodivesity outcomes In Challenges for Agricultural Research , 2011
View abstract

Firbank LG; Bradbury RB; McCracken DI; Stoate C Enclosed Farmland In UK National Ecosystem Assessment: Technical Report , 2011

Scholefield P; Firbank L; Butler S; Norris K; Jones LM; Petit S Modelling the European Farmland Bird Indicator in response to forecast land-use change in Europe Ecological Indicators 11 46-51, 2011
DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2009.09.008
View abstract

Pilgrim ES; Macleod CJA; Blackwell MSA; Bol R; Hogan DV; Chadwick DR; Cardenas L; Misselbrook TH; Haygarth PM; Brazier RE; Hobbs P; Hodgson C; Jarvis S; Dungait J; Murray PJ; Firbank LG INTERACTIONS AMONG AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES DELIVERED FROM EUROPEAN TEMPERATE GRASSLAND SYSTEMS ADV AGRON 109 117-154, 2010
DOI:10.1016/S0065-2113(10)09004-8

Pilgrim E; Macleod CJA; Beaumont D; Blackwell MSA; Bol R; Del Prado A; Griffith B; Orr R; Shepherd A; Wu L; Firbank LG Learning how to model ecosystem trade-offs at the farm scale Modelling for Environment's Sake: Proceedings of the 5th Biennial Conference of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society, iEMSs 2010 1 675-682, 2010
View abstract

Firbank LG; Harrison HM; Harrison N; Haley D; Griffith B A Story of Becoming: Landscape Creation through an Art / Science Dynamic In What is land for? , 2009
View abstract

Anderson M; Firbank L Setting the Stage In Agriculture at the Crossroads: IAASTD: Volume IV North America and Europe , 2009
View abstract

Firbank L Commentary: It's not enough to develop agriculture that minimizes environmental impact International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 7 151-152, 2009
DOI:10.3763/ijas.2009.c5007

Norton L; Johnson P; Joys A; Stuart R; Chamberlain D; Feber R; Firbank L; Manley W; Wolfe M; Hart B; Mathews F; Macdonald D; Fuller RJ Consequences of organic and non-organic farming practices for field, farm and landscape complexity Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 129 221-227, 2009
DOI:10.1016/j.agee.2008.09.002
View abstract

Brooks DR; Perry JN; Clark SJ; Heard MS; Firbank LG; Holdgate R; Mason NS; Shortall CR; Skellern MP; Woiwod IP National-scale metacommunity dynamics of carabid beetles in UK farmland. J Anim Ecol 77 265-274, 2008
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2007.01331.x
View abstract

Firbank LG Assessing the Ecological Impacts of Bioenergy Projects BIOENERG RES 1 12-19, 2008
DOI:10.1007/s12155-007-9000-8

Henle K; Alard D; Clitherow J; Cobb P; Firbank L; Kull T; McCracken D; Moritz RFA; Niemelä J; Rebane M; Wascher D; Watt A; Young J Identifying and managing the conflicts between agriculture and biodiversity conservation in Europe-A review Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 124 60-71, 2008
DOI:10.1016/j.agee.2007.09.005
View abstract

Firbank LG; Petit S; Smart S; Blain A; Fuller RJ Assessing the impacts of agricultural intensification on biodiversity: a British perspective. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363 777-787, 2008
DOI:10.1098/rstb.2007.2183
View abstract

Petit S; Vinther FP; Verkerk PJ; Firbank LG; Halberg N; Dalgaard T; Kjeldsen C; Lindner M; Zudin S Indicators for assessing the environmental impacts of land use change across Europe In Sustainability Impact Assessment of Land Use Changes , 2008
View abstract

MacDonald DW; Tattersall FH; Service KM; Firbank LG; Feber RE Mammals, agri-environment schemes and set-aside - what are the putative benefits?, 2007
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2007.00100.x

Feber RE; Johnson PJ; Firbank LG; Hopkins A; Macdonald DW A comparison of butterfly populations on organically and conventionally managed farmland J ZOOL 273 30-39, 2007
DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2007.00296.x

Feber RE; Asteraki EJ; Firbank LG Can farming and wildlife co-exist? In Key topics in conservation biology , 2007
View abstract

Smart SM; Marrs RH; Le Duc MG; Thompson K; Bunce RGH; Firbank LG; Rossall MJ Spatial relationships between intensive land cover and residual plant species diversity in temperate farmed landscapes J APPL ECOL 43 1128-1137, 2006
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01231.x

Maskell LC; Firbank LG; Thompson K; Bullock JM; Smart SM Interactions between non-native plant species and the floristic composition of common habitats J ECOL 94 1052-1060, 2006
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2745.2006.01172.x

Smart SM; Thompson K; Marrs RH; Le Duc MG; Maskell LC; Firbank LG Biotic homogenization and changes in species diversity across human-modified ecosystems. Proc Biol Sci 273 2659-2665, 2006
DOI:10.1098/rspb.2006.3630
View abstract

Gibbons DW; Bohan DA; Rothery P; Stuart RC; Haughton AJ; Scott RJ; Wilson JD; Perry JN; Clark SJ; Dawson RJ; Firbank LG Weed seed resources for birds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. Proc Biol Sci 273 1921-1928, 2006
DOI:10.1098/rspb.2006.3522
View abstract

Firbank LG; Rothery P; May MJ; Clark SJ; Scott RJ; Stuart RC; Boffey CW; Brooks DR; Champion GT; Haughton AJ; Hawes C; Heard MS; Dewar AM; Perry JN; Squire GR Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant cropping systems on weed seedbanks in two years of following crops. Biol Lett 2 140-143, 2006
DOI:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0390
View abstract

Heard MS; Clark SJ; Rothery P; Perry JN; Bohan DA; Brooks DR; Champion GT; Dewar AM; Hawes C; Haughton AJ; May MJ; Scott RJ; Stuart RS; Squire GR; Firbank LG Effects of successive seasons of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant maize cropping on weeds and invertebrates ANN APPL BIOL 149 249-254, 2006
DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2006.00091.x

Fuller RJ; Norton LR; Feber RE; Johnson PJ; Chamberlain DE; Joys AC; Mathews F; Stuart RC; Townsend MC; Manley WJ; Wolfe MS; Macdonald DW; Firbank LG Benefits of organic farming to biodiversity vary among taxa. Biol Lett 1 431-434, 2005
DOI:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0357
View abstract

Heard MS; Rothery P; Perry JN; Firbank LG Predicting longer-term changes in weed populations under GMHT crop management WEED RES 45 331-338, 2005

Smart SM; Bunce RGH; Marrs R; LeDuc M; Firbank LG; Maskell LC; Scott WA; Thompson K; Walker KJ Large-scale changes in the abundance of common higher plant species across Britain between 1978, 1990 and 1998 as a consequence of human activity: Tests of hypothesised changes in trait representation BIOL CONSERV 124 355-371, 2005

Brooks DR; Clark SJ; Perry JN; Bohan DA; Champion GT; Firbank LG; Haughton AJ; Hawes C; Heard MS; Woiwod IP Invertebrate biodiversity in maize following withdrawal of triazine herbicides. Proc Biol Sci 272 1497-1502, 2005
DOI:10.1098/rspb.2005.3102
View abstract

Norton LR; Firbank LG; Scott A; Watkinson AR Characterising spatial and temporal variation in the finite rate of population increase across the northern range boundary of the annual grass Vulpia fasciculata. Oecologia 144 407-415, 2005
DOI:10.1007/s00442-005-0102-8
View abstract

Carey PD; Manchester SJ; Firbank LG Performance of two agri-environment schemes in England: a comparison of ecological and multi-disciplinary evaluations AGRICULTURE ECOSYSTEMS&ENVIRONMENT 108 178-188, 2005
DOI:10.1016/j.agee.2005.02.002

Bohan DA; Boffey CW; Brooks DR; Clark SJ; Dewar AM; Firbank LG; Haughton AJ; Hawes C; Heard MS; May MJ; Osborne JL; Perry JN; Rothery P; Roy DB; Scott RJ; Squire GR; Woiwod IP; Champion GT Effects on weed and invertebrate abundance and diversity of herbicide management in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant winter-sown oilseed rape. Proc Biol Sci 272 463-474, 2005
DOI:10.1098/rspb.2004.3049
View abstract

Firbank LG Striking a new balance between agricultural production and biodiversity ANN APPL BIOL 146 163-175, 2005

Pywell RF; Warman EA; Sparks TH; Greatorex-Davies JN; Walker KJ; Meek WR; Carvell C; Petit S; Firbank LG Assessing habitat quality for butterflies on intensively managed arable farmland BIOL CONSERV 118 313-325, 2004
DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2003.09.011

Perry JN; Firbank LG; Champion GT; Clark SJ; Heard MS; May MJ; Hawes C; Squire GR; Rothery P; Woiwod IP; Pidgeon JD Ban on triazine herbicides likely to reduce but not negate relative benefits of GMHT maize cropping. Nature 428 313-316, 2004
DOI:10.1038/nature02374
View abstract

Chamberlain DE; Gough S; Vickery JA; Firbank LG; Petit S; Pywell R; Bradbury RB Rule-based predictive models are not cost-effective alternatives to bird monitoring on farmland AGR ECOSYST ENVIRON 101 1-8, 2004
DOI:10.1016/S0167-8809(03)00277-9

Roy DB; Bohan DA; Haughton AJ; Hill MO; Osborne JL; Clark SJ; Perry JN; Rothery P; Scott RJ; Brooks DR; Champion GT; Hawes C; Heard MS; Firbank LG Invertebrates and vegetation of field margins adjacent to crops subject to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358 1879-1898, 2003
DOI:10.1098/rstb.2003.1404
View abstract

Brooks DR; Bohan DA; Champion GT; Haughton AJ; Hawes C; Heard MS; Clark SJ; Dewar AM; Firbank LG; Perry JN; Rothery P; Scott RJ; Woiwod IP; Birchall C; Skellern MP; Walker JH; Baker P; Bell D; Browne EL; Dewar AJ; Fairfax CM; Garner BH; Haylock LA; Horne SL; Hulmes SE; Mason NS; Norton LR; Nuttall P; Randle Z; Rossall MJ; Sands RJ; Singer EJ; Walker MJ Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. I. Soil-surface-active invertebrates. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358 1847-1862, 2003
DOI:10.1098/rstb.2003.1407
View abstract

Firbank LG The Farm Scale Evaluations of spring-sown genetically modified crops. Introduction. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358 1777-1778, 2003
DOI:10.1098/rstb.2003.1409

Squire GR; Brooks DR; Bohan DA; Champion GT; Daniels RE; Haughton AJ; Hawes C; Heard MS; Hill MO; May MJ; Osborne JL; Perry JN; Roy DB; Woiwod IP; Firbank LG On the rationale and interpretation of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358 1779-1799, 2003
DOI:10.1098/rstb.2003.1403
View abstract

Heard MS; Hawes C; Champion GT; Clark SJ; Firbank LG; Haughton AJ; Parish AM; Perry JN; Rothery P; Scott RJ; Skellern MP; Squire GR; Hill MO Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. I. Effects on abundance and diversity. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358 1819-1832, 2003
DOI:10.1098/rstb.2003.1402
View abstract

Hawes C; Haughton AJ; Osborne JL; Roy DB; Clark SJ; Perry JN; Rothery P; Bohan DA; Brooks DR; Champion GT; Dewar AM; Heard MS; Woiwod IP; Daniels RE; Young MW; Parish AM; Scott RJ; Firbank LG; Squire GR Responses of plants and invertebrate trophic groups to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358 1899-1913, 2003
DOI:10.1098/rstb.2003.1406
View abstract

Haughton AJ; Champion GT; Hawes C; Heard MS; Brooks DR; Bohan DA; Clark SJ; Dewar AM; Firbank LG; Osborne JL; Perry JN; Rothery P; Roy DB; Scott RJ; Woiwod IP; Birchall C; Skellern MP; Walker JH; Baker P; Browne EL; Dewar AJ; Garner BH; Haylock LA; Horne SL; Mason NS; Sands RJ; Walker MJ Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358 1863-1877, 2003
DOI:10.1098/rstb.2003.1408
View abstract

Heard MS; Hawes C; Champion GT; Clark SJ; Firbank LG; Haughton AJ; Parish AM; Perry JN; Rothery P; Roy DB; Scott RJ; Skellern MP; Squire GR; Hill MO Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. II. Effects on individual species. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358 1833-1846, 2003
DOI:10.1098/rstb.2003.1401
View abstract

Champion GT; May MJ; Bennett S; Brooks DR; Clark SJ; Daniels RE; Firbank LG; Haughton AJ; Hawes C; Heard MS; Perry JN; Randle Z; Rossall MJ; Rothery P; Skellern MP; Scott RJ; Squire GR; Thomas MR Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358 1801-1818, 2003
DOI:10.1098/rstb.2003.1405
View abstract

Carey PD; Short C; Morris C; Hunt J; Priscott A; Davis M; Finch C; Curry N; Little W; Winter M; Parkin A; Firbank LG The multi-disciplinary evaluation of a national agri-environment scheme J ENVIRON MANAGE 69 71-91, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S0301-4797(03)00120-8

Firbank LG; Smart SM; Crabb J; Critchley CNR; Fowbert JW; Fuller RJ; Gladders P; Green DB; Henderson I; Hill MO Agronomic and ecological costs and benefits of set-aside in England AGR ECOSYST ENVIRON 95 73-85, 2003

Haines-Young R; Barr CJ; Firbank LG; Furse M; Howard DC; McGowan G; Petit S; Smart SM; Watkins JW Changing landscapes, habitats and vegetation diversity across Great Britain. J Environ Manage 67 267-281, 2003
View abstract

Firbank LG; Barr CJ; Bunce RG; Furse MT; Haines-Young R; Hornung M; Howard DC; Sheail J; Sier A; Smart SM Assessing stock and change in land cover and biodiversity in GB: an introduction to Countryside Survey 2000. J Environ Manage 67 207-218, 2003
View abstract

Firbank LG Countryside Survey 2000 J ENVIRON MANAGE 67 205-205, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S0301-4797(02)00173-1

Firbank LG; Heard MS; Woiwod IP; Hawes C; Haughton AJ; Champion GT; Scott RJ; Hill MO; Dewar AM; Squire GR; May MJ; Brooks DR; Bohan DA; Daniels RE; Osborne JL; Roy DB; Black HIJ; Rothery P; Perry JN An introduction to the Farm-Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops J APPL ECOL 40 2-16, 2003

Carey PD; Barnett CL; Greensdale PD; Garbutt RA; Warman EA; Myhill D; Scott RJ; Smart RJ; Manchester SJ; Robinson J; Walker KJ; Howard DC; Firbank LG A comparison of the ecological quality of land between an English agri-environment scheme and the countryside as a whole BIOL CONSERV 108 183-197, 2002

Smart SM; Bunce RGH; Firbank LG; Coward P Do field boundaries act as refugia for grassland plant species diversity in intensively managed agricultural landscapes in Britain? AGR ECOSYST ENVIRON 91 73-87, 2002

Petit S; Howard DC; Smart SM; Firbank LG Biodiversity in British agro-ecosystems: the changing regional landscape context, 2002

Firbank LG; Scott R; Brooks D; Haughton A; Champion G; Hawes C; Heard M The Farm-Scale Evaluations of Herbicide Tolerant Crops in Great Britain In LMOs and the environment , 2002

Firbank LG; Forcella F Agriculture. Genetically modified crops and farmland biodiversity. Science 289 1481-1482, 2000
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Smart SM; Firbank LG; Bunce RGH; Watkins JW Quantifying changes in abundance of food plants for butterfly larvae and farmland birds J APPL ECOL 37 398-414, 2000

Ellis NE; Heal OW; Dent JB; Firbank LG Pluriactivity, farm household socio-economics and the botanical characteristics of grass fields in the Grampian region of Scotland AGR ECOSYST ENVIRON 76 121-134, 1999

Smith GL; Freckleton RP; Firbank LG; Watkinson AR The population dynamics of Anisantha sterilis in winter wheat: comparative demography and the role of management J APPL ECOL 36 455-471, 1999

Smith H; Firbank LG; Macdonald DW Uncropped edges of arable fields managed for biodiversity do not increase weed occurrence in adjacent crops BIOL CONSERV 89 107-111, 1999

Firbank LG; Dewar AM; Hill MO; May MJ; Perry JN; Rothery P; Squire GR; Woiwod IP Farm-scale evaluation of GM crops explained NATURE 399 727-728, 1999

Norton LR; Firbank LG; Gray AJ; Watkinson AR Responses to elevated temperature and CO2 in the perennial grass Agrostis curtisii in relation to population origin FUNCT ECOL 13 29-37, 1999

Norton LR; Firbank LG; Blum H Effects of free-air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) on experimental grassland communities FUNCT ECOL 13 38-44, 1999

Norton LR; McLeod AR; Greenslade PD; Firbank LG; Watkinson AR Elevated UV-B radiation effects on experimental grassland communities GLOBAL CHANGE BIOL 5 601-608, 1999

Firbank LG The diversity of arable plants - past, present and some futures, 1999

Bellamy PE; Brown NJ; Enoksson B; Firbank LG; Fuller RJ; Hinsley SA; Schotman AGM The influences of habitat, landscape structure and climate on local distribution patterns of the nuthatch (Sitta europaea L.) OECOLOGIA 115 127-136, 1998

Swetnam RD; Ragou P; Firbank LG; Hinsley SA; Bellamy PE Applying ecological models to altered landscapes. Scenario-testing with GIS LANDSCAPE URBAN PLAN 41 3-18, 1998

Firbank LG; Ellis NE; Hill MO; Lockwood AJ; Swetnam RD Mapping the distribution of weeds in Great Britain in relation to national survey data and to soil type WEED RES 38 1-10, 1998

McCloskey MC; Firbank LG; Watkinson AR; Webb DJ Interactions between weeds of winter wheat under different fertilizer, cultivation and weed management treatments WEED RES 38 11-24, 1998

Feber RE; Bell J; Johnson PJ; Firbank LG; Macdonald DW The effects of organic farming on surface-active spider (Araneae) assemblages in wheat in southern England, UK J ARACHNOL 26 190-202, 1998

Swetnam RD; Firbank LG; Ellis NE; Hill MO A geographic information system for predicting weed changes on set-aside arable land WEED TECHNOL 12 53-63, 1998

Howard DC; Bunce RGH; Firbank LG; van de Poll HM Modelling the afforestation of agricultural landscapes in Great Britain, 1998

Mack EL; Firbank LG; Bellamy PE; Hinsley SA; Veitch N The comparison of remotely sensed and ground-based habitat area data using species-area models J APPL ECOL 34 1222-1228, 1997

Shore RF; Feber RE; Firbank LG; Fishwick SK; Macdonald DW; Norum U The impacts of molluscicide pellets on spring and autumn populations of wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus AGR ECOSYST ENVIRON 64 211-217, 1997

Feber RE; Firbank LG; Johnson PJ; Macdonald DW The effects of organic farming on pest and non-pest butterfly abundance, 1997

Swetnam RD; Firbank LG; Ellis NE; Hill MO Modelling ecological change on Set-aside arable land using a GIS approach., 1997

McCloskey M; Firbank LG; Watkinson AR; Webb DJ The dynamics of experimental arable weed communities under different management practices J VEG SCI 7 799-808, 1996

NORTON LR; FIRBANK LG; WATKINSON AR ECOTYPIC DIFFERENTIATION OF RESPONSE TO ENHANCED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE LEVELS IN ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA OECOLOGIA 104 394-396, 1995

FIRBANK LG; WATKINSON AR; NORTON LR; ASHENDEN TW PLANT-POPULATIONS AND GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL-CHANGE - THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE, CARBON-DIOXIDE AND NUTRIENT REGIMES ON DENSITY-DEPENDENCE IN POPULATIONS OF VULPIA-CILIATA FUNCT ECOL 9 432-441, 1995

Firbank LG; Clark NA; Garstang JR Agronomic and envirommental evaluation of set-aside under the cap reform scheme, 1995

FEBER RE; JOHNSON PJ; MACDONALD DW; FIRBANK LG The effects of organic and conventional abundance of pest and non-pest butterflies, 1995

FIRBANK LG; TELFER MG; EVERSHAM BC; ARNOLD HR THE USE OF SPECIES-DECLINE STATISTICS TO HELP TARGET CONSERVATION POLICY FOR SET-ASIDE ARABLE LAND J ENVIRON MANAGE 42 415-422, 1994

FIRBANK LG SHORT-TERM VARIABILITY OF PLANT-POPULATIONS WITHIN A REGULARLY DISTURBED HABITAT OECOLOGIA 94 351-355, 1993

FIRBANK LG THE IMPLICATIONS OF SCALE ON THE ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF WEEDS, 1993

Firbank LG; Ecology IOT Managing set-aside land for wildlife, 1993

Firbank LG The implications of scale on the ecology of weeds In Landscape ecology and agroecosystems , 1993

LINTELLSMITH G; WATKINSON AR; FIRBANK LG THE EFFECTS OF REDUCED NITROGEN AND WEED-WEED COMPETITION ON THE POPULATIONS OF 3 COMMON CEREAL WEEDS, 1991

MCCLOSKEY M; FIRBANK LG; WATKINSON AR INTERACTIONS BETWEEN 3 WEED SPECIES OF WINTER-WHEAT IN RESPONSE TO MANAGEMENT-PRACTICES, 1991

Symposium BES; Firbank LG; Biologists AOA The ecology of temperate cereal fields, 1991

Firbank LG Interactions between weeds and crops In The ecology of temperate cereal fields , 1991

FIRBANK LG; COUSENS R; MORTIMER AM; SMITH RGR EFFECTS OF SOIL TYPE ON CROP YIELD WEED DENSITY RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN WINTER-WHEAT AND BROMUS-STERILIS J APPL ECOL 27 308-318, 1990

Firbank LG; Watkinson AR On the effects of competition: from monocultures to mixtures In Perspectives on plant competition , 1990
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FIRBANK LG PLANT COMPETITION NATURE 337 122-122, 1989

FIRBANK LG FORECASTING WEED INFESTATIONS - THE DESIRABLE AND THE POSSIBLE, 1989

FIRBANK LG AGROSTEMMA-GITHAGO L J ECOL 76 1232-1246, 1988

COUSENS R; FIRBANK LG; MORTIMER AM; SMITH RGR VARIABILITY IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CROP YIELD AND WEED DENSITY FOR WINTER-WHEAT AND BROMUS-STERILIS J APPL ECOL 25 1033-1044, 1988

FIRBANK LG; WATKINSON AR ON THE ANALYSIS OF COMPETITION AT THE LEVEL OF THE INDIVIDUAL PLANT OECOLOGIA 71 308-317, 1987

FIRBANK LG; WATKINSON AR MODELING THE POPULATION-DYNAMICS OF AN ARABLE WEED AND ITS EFFECTS UPON CROP YIELD J APPL ECOL 23 147-159, 1986

FIRBANK LG; WATKINSON AR A MODEL OF INTERFERENCE WITHIN PLANT MONOCULTURES J THEOR BIOL 116 291-311, 1985

FIRBANK LG; WATKINSON AR ON THE ANALYSIS OF COMPETITION WITHIN 2-SPECIES MIXTURES OF PLANTS J APPL ECOL 22 503-517, 1985

FIRBANK LG MODELING THE POPULATION-DYNAMICS OF ARABLE WEEDS BIOMETRICS 41 337-337, 1985

WATKINSON AR; LONSDALE WM; FIRBANK LG A NEIGHBORHOOD APPROACH TO SELF-THINNING OECOLOGIA 56 381-384, 1983

FIRBANK LG CORNCOCKLES BIOLOGIST 28 179-179, 1981

Firbank LG Addressing the challenge of food and environmental quality. Public Service Review: Central Government 18 84-85,