Faculty of Biological Sciences

Prof Stuart Egginton

BSc (Bangor), PhD (St Andrews), DSc (Birmingham)
Leadership Chair in Exercise Science
School of Biomedical Sciences

Background: BSc(Hons) Zoology, University of Wales, Bangor; PhD Physiology, University of St. Andrews, Fife; Postdoctoral Fellow at University of Maine, Orono (USA) and University of Birmingham; Lecturer, Senior Lecturer and Reader in Cardiovascular Physiology at University of Birmingham

Contact:  Garstang 5.64, +44(0) 113 34 32264, email address for  

Research Interests

Integrative cardiorespiratory and exercise physiology

My group studies the mechanisms of blood vessel growth, using physiological remodelling to devise targetted therapeutic repair of a pathologically damaged microcirculation, and interactions between the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in exercise and hypothermia, and how deleterious effects may be ameliorated e.g. using electrical stimulation or therapeutic bradycardia. The multidisciplinary approach ranges from mathematical modelling and bioinformatic network analysis, through cell and molecular assays, to in vivo tissue performance and integrative function in a range of animal species and man. These experiments explore the limits to physiological adaptation, and the origins of human morbidity.


Current Projects

1) Icefish—one of nature’s great curiosities

In April 2015 a group of US, UK, Canadian and Swedish researchers including myself headed to the Antarctic Peninsula as part of a three year investigation of the icefish—one of nature’s great curiosities.

For more information you can read a blog of the expedition at http://www.fbs.leeds.ac.uk/blogs/antarctic/

2) Angiogenesis

The Angiogenesis Research Group is studying the mechanisms underlying growth of blood vessels in skeletal and cardiac muscle, with a particular emphasis on determining how mechanical factors (i.e. the local physical environment of endothelial cells) may initiate and control the proliferation of capillaries during in vivo angiogenesis. Currently under investigation is how increased blood flow (elevated shear stress) and muscle overload (increased longitudinal strain) lead to different patterns of growth originating at the inner (luminal) and outer (abluminal) surfaces, respectively. The combination of local factors invoked during muscle activity is compared with those seen during alterations in the external environment (e.g. hypoxia, hypothermia), including the differential influence of humoral and perivascular signals. These data are essential for the development of angiotherapies to promote regulated vascular growth or control vascular rarefaction, as required. This work has widespread implications - some estimates suggest 80% of NHS medical burden could benefit from targetted angiotherapy.

figure 1

Important developments include the observations that capillary growth can be induced with or without breakage of the basement membrane, endothelial proliferation may precede the formation of sprouts, the lack of involvement of FGF, and that VEGF, NO and metalloproteinases may differentially regulate physiological angiogenesis. These findings do not conform to the patterns established for pathological or in vitro models of angiogenesis. Further studies to elucidate this distinction include the role of stromal cells (pericytes, fibroblasts, macrophages) in controlling angiogenesis, and the link between small and large vessel growth. Exciting new avenues for angiotherapy being explored include manipulation of the HIF transcription pathway, the potential role for stem cells in treatment of muscle ischaemia (using endothelial progenitors), and how mobilisation of other blood components (platelets, leukocytes) may affect the angiogenic response to physiological or pathological stimuli.

figure 2

3) Oxygen transport

The responses to impaired blood flow or increased activity are used to examine how oxygen supply and demand are balanced. Analysis of capillary distribution within heterogeneous tissue (e.g. muscles with different fibre types) utilises morphometric quantification of capillary supply among fibres in terms of 'supply equivalents'. Scaling of capillary supply with respect to fibre size is the usual pattern observed in skeletal muscle of all vertebrates, and this basic growth process may be modified to a limited extent with training or under pathological conditions (see above). This work identifies the need for tight spatial organisation of adaptive angiogenesis. Complimentary to the extracellular diffusion distances described in this manner, changes to intracellular oxygen tension are examined using mathematical models to examine the relative efficiency of changes in different components within the pathway of oxygen transport to tissue. Bioinformatic analysis of complex diseases, those with central and peripheral components involving impaired oxygen transport, is used to explore the possibility of better targetted treatment for established co-morbidities (e.g. heart failure, respiratory disease).

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4) Muscle plasticity

The metabolic and ultrastructural responses of skeletal muscle to chronic reduction in blood flow or increased activity are followed in order to identify the range of strategies available to balance nutrient supply and demand. Work on chronic ischaemia is continuing to examine the apparent dissociation between structural and functional damage to the endothelium, and impairment of vascular reactivity liked with NO production. Glycolytic and oxidative muscles respond differently to similar stimuli, although metabolic and structural indices of aerobic capacity are closely related in most, but not all, cases (e.g. capillary supply and oxidative capacity may be varied independently, and localised interventions may have significant remote effects). Adaptations examined include myopathic and training responses in humans; electrical stimulation and ischaemia in mammals; steroid and overload hypertrophy in mammals; migratory fitness in a range of vertebrate species.

figure 4

5) Cardiorespiratory control

How well the cardiovascular system copes with reduced core temperature has major implications for survival in all animals, and use of clinically invoked hypothermia in humans. Using a specially designed environmental chamber (with photoperiod and temperature control), the strategies adopted by species that adapt to a cold environment are compared with the more limited tolerance of other mammals (including man). The cardiovascular response of hibernators to hypothermia examines angiogenic potential, vascular reactivity and cardiac autonomic control mechanisms; this has required development of new software (for power spectral analysis) and hardware (data loggers for long term storage), with potentially broad application. Ectotherms from polar & tropical environments provide additional insights into the physiological limits to life on the edge from an evolutionary perspective. Identifying the preserved or ancestral mechanisms will define the most robust, and therefore likely profitable, avenues for therapeutic intervention.

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Committee Memberships

  • Animal Welfare and Ethics Research Committee (AWER)
  • FBS Space Steering Group
  • FBS Faculty Board
  • Faculty Research and Innovation Committee (FRIC)
  • Intercalated Programme Studies Committee
  • SBMS Management Committee
  • SCI Management Committee
  • University Taught Student Education Committee (UTSEC)

Faculty Research and Innovation

Studentship information

Undergraduate project topics:

  • Angiogenesis and muscle activity

Postgraduate studentship areas:

  • Animal models of exercise
  • Translational benefits of muscle stimulation
  • Benefits of eccentric exercise

See also:

Modules managed

SPSC3328 - Sport Medicine, Health and Nutrition
SPSC5320M - Project Work and Dissertation

Modules taught

BMSC1103 - Basic Laboratory and Scientific Skills
BMSC1110/SPSC1220 - Foundation modules
BMSC3126/43/44/45/46 A - ATU - Integrative biomedical sciences
SPSC1211 - Tutorial and Practical Skills in Sport and Exercise Science
SPSC1225 - Physical Activity Across the Lifespan
SPSC2302 - Exercise Physiology in Sport, Health and Disease
SPSC3061 - Research Project in Sport and Exercise Science II
SPSC3328 - Sport Medicine, Health and Nutrition
SPSC5132M - Musculoskeletal Medicine and Sport Injuries
SPSC5134M - The Sport and Exercise Medicine Practitioner I

Academic roles

PGT Programme Leader - MSc Sports and Exercise Medicine


Member of Masters Taught Student Education Committee

Centre membership: The Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre (MCRC)

Dr Peter Tickle  (Research Fellow)


Mohd Hakam Nazir (Primary supervisor) 50% FTE
Nicholas Renwick (Primary supervisor) 50% FTE
Nicole Smith (Primary supervisor) 34% FTE
Jack Garnham (Co-supervisor) 33% FTE
Said Ibeggazene (Co-supervisor) 30% FTE

Clarke K, Ricciardi S, Pearson T, Bharudin I, Davidsen PK, Bonomo M, Brina D, Scagliola A, Simpson DM, Beynon RJ, Khanim F, Ankers J, Sarzynski MA, Ghosh S, Pisconti A, Rozman J, Hrabe de Angelis M, Bunce C, Stewart C, Egginton S, Caddick M, Jackson M, Bouchard C, Biffo S, Falciani F The Role of Eif6 in Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis Revealed by Endurance Training Co-expression Networks Cell Reports 21 1507-1520, 2017
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Mortensen SP, Egginton S, Madsen M, Hansen JB, Munch GDW, Iepsen UW,Åkerström T, Pedersen BK, Hellsten Y Alpha adrenergic receptor blockade increases capillarization and fractional O2 extraction and lowers blood flow in contracting human skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 221 32-43, 2017
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Tikkanen E, Haverinen J, Egginton S, Hassinen M, Vornanen M Effects of prolonged anoxia on electrical activity of the heart in crucian carp (Carassius carassius) Journal of Experimental Biology 220 445-454, 2017
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Fujisawa T, Wang K, Niu X, Egginton S, Ahmad S, Hewett P, Kontos CD, Ahmed A Angiopoietin-1 promotes atherosclerosis by increasing the proportion of circulating Gr1+ monocytes Cardiovascular Research 113 81-89, 2017
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Egginton S, Hussain A, Hall-Jones J, Chaudhry B, Syeda F, Glen KE Shear stress-induced angiogenesis in mouse muscle is independent of the vasodilator mechanism and quickly reversible. Acta Physiologica 218 153-166, 2016
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Egginton S, Campbell HA Cardiorespiratory responses in an Antarctic fish suggest limited capacity for thermal acclimation Journal of Experimental Biology 219 1283-1286, 2016
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Kissane R, Egginton S Differential Expansion of the Capillary Bed through Physiological Angiogenesis in Skeletal Muscle, 2016

Kissane R, Egginton S, Askew GN Contractile Properties of the Rat Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle in Relation to Regional Variation in Fibre Type Composition, 2016

Davidsen PK, Turan N, Egginton S, Falciani F Multilevel functional genomics data integration as a tool for understanding physiology: a network biology perspective. J Appl Physiol (1985) 120 297-309, 2016
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Olfert IM, Baum O, Hellsten Y, Egginton S Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 310 H326-H336, 2016
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Egginton S In Vivo Models of Muscle Angiogenesis, 2016

Crowcombe J, Dhillon SS, Hurst RM, Egginton S, Müller F, Sík A, Tarte E 3D Finite Element Electrical Model of Larval Zebrafish ECG Signals. PLoS One 11 e0165655-, 2016
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Bosutti A, Egginton S, Barnouin Y, Ganse B, Rittweger JR, Degens H Local capillary supply in muscle is not determined by local xidative capacity Journal of Experimental Biology 218 3377-3380, 2015
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Hauton D, Al-Shammari A, Gaffney EA, Egginton S Maternal hypoxia decreases capillary supply and increases metabolic inefficiency leading to divergence in myocardial oxygen supply and demand. PLoS One 10 e0127424-, 2015
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Hauton D, Winter J, Al-Shammari AA, Gaffney EA, Evans RD, Egginton S Changes to both cardiac metabolism and performance accompany acute reductions in functional capillary supply Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects 1850 681-690, 2015
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Naylor AJ, McGettrick HM, Maynard WD, May P, Barone F, Croft AP, Egginton S, Buckley CD A differential role for CD248 (Endosialin) in PDGF-mediated skeletal muscle angiogenesis PLoS One 9 -, 2014
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Packham IM, Watson SP, Bicknell R, Egginton S In vivo evidence for platelet-induced physiological angiogenesis by a COX driven mechanism PLoS One 9 -, 2014
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Al-Shammari AA, Gaffney EA, Egginton S Modelling capillary oxygen supply capacity in mixed muscles: capillary domains revisited. Journal of Theoretical Biology 356 47-61, 2014
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Davidsen PK, Herbert JM, Antczak P, Clarke K, Ferrer E, Peinado VI, Gonzalez C, Roca J, Egginton S, Barbera JA, Falciani F A systems biology approach reveals a link between systemic cytokines and skeletal muscle energy metabolism in a rodent smoking model and human COPD Genome Medicine 6 -, 2014
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Egginton S, Brown MD In Memoriam: Olga Hudlická (11.07.26-03.05.14) Microcirculation 21 475-477, 2014
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Al-Shammari AA, Gaffney EA, Egginton S Modelling oxygen capillary supply to striated muscle tissues In Advances in Applied Mathematics , 2014
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Egginton S, Birot O Angiogenesis: growth points. Microcirculation 21 276-277, 2014
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Wragg JW, Durant S, McGettrick HM, Sample KM, Egginton S, Bicknell R Shear stress regulated gene expression and angiogenesis in vascular endothelium. Microcirculation 21 290-300, 2014
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Vornanen M, Haverinen J, Egginton S Acute heat tolerance of cardiac excitation in the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario). Journal of Experimental Biology 217 299-309, 2014
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Haverinen J, Egginton S, Vornanen M Electrical excitation of the heart in a basal vertebrate, the european river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 87 817-828, 2014
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Syeda F, Hauton D, Young S, Egginton S How ubiquitous is endothelial NOS? COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY A-MOLECULAR&INTEGRATIVE PHYSIOLOGY 166 207-214, 2013

Egginton S, May S, Deveci D, Hauton D Is cold acclimation of benefit to hibernating rodents? J Exp Biol 216 2140-2149, 2013
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Patel AS, Smith A, Nucera S, Biziato D, Saha P, Attia RQ, Humphries J, Mattock K, Grover SP, Lyons OT, Guidotti LG, Siow R, Ivetic A, Egginton S, Waltham M, Naldini L, De Palma M, Modarai B TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages regulate revascularization of the ischemic limb EMBO Molecular Medicine 5 858-869, 2013
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Lotfi S, Patel AS, Mattock K, Egginton S, Smith A, Modarai B Towards a more relevant hind limb model of muscle ischaemia Atherosclerosis 227 1-8, 2013
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Patel AS, Smith A, Nucera S, Biziato D, Saha P, Attia RQ, Humphries J, Grover SP, Mattock K, Lyons OT, Guidotti LG, Siow R, Ivetic A, Egginton S, Waltham M, Naldini L, De Palma M, Modarai B TIE2-expressing monocytes regulate revascularisation of the ischaemic limb, 2013

Luu NT, Glen KE, Egginton S, Rainger GE, Nash GB Integrin-substrate interactions underlying shear-induced inhibition of the inflammatory response of endothelial cells Thrombosis and Haemostasis 109 298-308, 2013
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Dhillon SS, Dóró E, Magyary I, Egginton S, Sík A, Müller F Optimisation of embryonic and larval ECG measurement in zebrafish for quantifying the effect of QT prolonging drugs. PLoS One 8 e60552-, 2013
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Al-Shammari AA, Gaffney EA, Egginton S Re-evaluating the Use of Voronoi Tessellations in the Assessment of Oxygen Supply from Capillaries in Muscle Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 74 2204-2231, 2012
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Glen K, Luu NT, Ross E, Buckley CD, Rainger GE, Egginton S, Nash GB Modulation of functional responses of endothelial cells linked to angiogenesis and inflammation by shear stress: differential effects of the mechanotransducer CD31. J Cell Physiol 227 2710-2721, 2012
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Hussain A, Steimle M, Hoppeler H, Baum O, Egginton S The vascular-disrupting agent combretastatin impairs splitting and sprouting forms of physiological angiogenesis. Microcirculation 19 296-305, 2012
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Cudmore MJ, Ahmad S, Sissaoui S, Ramma W, Ma B, Fujisawa T, Al-Ani B, Wang K, Cai M, Crispi F, Hewett PW, Gratacos E, Egginton S, Ahmed A Loss of Akt activity increases circulating soluble endoglin release in preeclampsia: identification of inter-dependency between Akt-1 and heme oxygenase-1 EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL 33 1150-1158, 2012

Hughes CE, Radhakrishnan UP, Lordkipanidzé M, Egginton S, Dijkstra JM, Jagadeeswaran P, Watson SP G6f-like is an ITAM-containing collagen receptor in thrombocytes. PLoS One 7 e52622-, 2012
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Egginton S In vivo shear stress response. Biochem Soc Trans 39 1633-1638, 2011
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Egginton S, Bicknell R Advances in the cellular and molecular biology of angiogenesis. Biochem Soc Trans 39 1551-1555, 2011
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Egginton S, Kumar P Comments on point:counterpoint: High altitude is/is not for the birds! Journal of Applied Physiology 111 1524-, 2011

Young S, Egginton S Temperature acclimation of gross cardiovascular morphology in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) JOURNAL OF THERMAL BIOLOGY 36 475-477, 2011

Hauton D, May S, Sabharwal R, Deveci D, Egginton S Cold-impaired cardiac performance in rats is only partially overcome by cold acclimation. J Exp Biol 214 3021-3031, 2011
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Turan N, Kalko S, Stincone A, Clarke K, Sabah A, Howlett K, Curnow SJ, Rodriguez DA, Cascante M, O'Neill L, Egginton S, Roca J, Falciani F A systems biology approach identifies molecular networks defining skeletal muscle abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PLoS Comput Biol 7 e1002129-, 2011
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Egginton S Physiological factors influencing capillary growth. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 202 225-239, 2011
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Robinson E, Egginton S, Davison W Warm-induced bradycardia and cold-induced tachycardia: mechanisms of cardiac and ventilatory control in a warm-acclimated Antarctic fish POLAR BIOLOGY 34 371-379, 2011

Ormerod JOM, Ashrafian H, Maher AR, Arif S, Steeples V, Born GVR, Egginton S, Feelisch M, Watkins H, Frenneaux MP The role of vascular myoglobin in nitrite-mediated blood vessel relaxation. Cardiovasc Res 89 560-565, 2011
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Rae PC, Kelly RD, Egginton S, St John JC Angiogenic potential of endothelial progenitor cells and embryonic stem cells Vascular Cell 3 -, 2011
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Egginton S, Badr I, Williams J, Hauton D, Baan GC, Jaspers RT Physiological angiogenesis is a graded, not threshold, response. J Physiol 589 195-206, 2011
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Scott GR, Schulte PM, Egginton S, Scott ALM, Richards JG, Milsom WK Molecular Evolution of Cytochrome c Oxidase Underlies High-Altitude Adaptation in the Bar-Headed Goose MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION 28 351-363, 2011

Egginton S, Syeda F Design and physiology of capillaries and secondary circulation | Capillaries, Capillarity, and Angiogenesis In Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology: From Genome to Environment , 2011
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Egginton S, Syeda F Capillaries, Capillarity, and Angiogenesis ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FISH PHYSIOLOGY: FROM GENOME TO ENVIRONMENT, VOLS 1-3 1142-1153, 2011

Egginton S Angiogenesis - may the force be with you! J Physiol 588 4615-4616, 2010

Egginton S Muscle capillary supply takes the load. J Physiol 588 4607-4608, 2010

Egginton S, Gaffney E Tissue capillary supply--it's quality not quantity that counts! Exp Physiol 95 971-979, 2010
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Hill JV, Egginton S Control of Branchial Artery Tone in Fish: Effects of Environmental Temperature and Phylogeny PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ZOOLOGY 83 33-42, 2010

Egginton S, White MJ 2010 winter games themed issue Experimental Physiology 95 402-403, 2010

Hauton D, Coney AM, Egginton S Both substrate availability and utilisation contribute to the defence of core temperature in response to acute cold. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 154 514-522, 2009
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Young S, Egginton S Allometry of skeletal muscle fine structure allows maintenance of aerobic capacity during ontogenetic growth. J Exp Biol 212 3564-3575, 2009
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Herbert JMJ, Buffa FM, Vorschmitt H, Egginton S, Bicknell R A new procedure for determining the genetic basis of a physiological process in a non-model species, illustrated by cold induced angiogenesis in the carp BMC Genomics 10 490-, 2009
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Scott GR, Egginton S, Richards JG, Milsom WK Evolution of muscle phenotype for extreme high altitude flight in the bar-headed goose PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 276 3645-3653, 2009

Clough GF, Egginton S Vasomotion and insulin-mediated capillary recruitment - Part of the explanation? Journal of Physiology 587 3407-3408, 2009

Egginton S Invited review: activity-induced angiogenesis. Pflugers Arch 457 963-977, 2009
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Campbell H, Davison W, Fraser KPP, Peck LS, Egginton S Heart rate and ventilation in Antarctic fishes are largely determined by ecotype Journal of Fish Biology 74 535-552, 2009
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Ahmed SK, Williams JL, Drake-Lee A, Egginton S Staining of nasal mucosa to examine remodelling. J Laryngol Otol 123 234-237, 2009
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Jetha KA, Nash GB, Egginton S Cooled neutrophils become deposited in the microcirculation after infusion: A potential mechanism for microvascular disruption following tissue hypothermia JOURNAL OF THERMAL BIOLOGY 33 451-458, 2008

Hudlická O, Garnham A, Shiner R, Egginton S Attenuation of changes in capillary fine structure and leukocyte adhesion improves muscle performance following chronic ischaemia in rats. J Physiol 586 4961-4975, 2008
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Ross EA, Freeman S, Zhao Y, Dhanjal TS, Ross EJ, Lax S, Ahmed Z, Hou TZ, Kalia N, Egginton S, Nash G, Watson SP, Frampton J, Buckley CD A novel role for PECAM-1 (CD31) in regulating haematopoietic progenitor cell compartmentalization between the peripheral blood and bone marrow. PLoS One 3 e2338-, 2008
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Campbell HA, Fraser KPP, Bishop CM, Peck LS, Egginton S Hibernation in an antarctic fish: on ice for winter. PLoS One 3 e1743-, 2008
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Egginton S In response to "Point:Counterpoint: There is/is not capillary recruitment in active skeletal muscle during exercise". Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 104 896-, 2008

Ahmed SK, Williams JL, Drake-Lee A, Egginton S No significant role for angiogenesis in nasal polyposis. Am J Rhinol 22 24-28, 2008
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Facucho-Oliveira JM, Alderson J, Spikings EC, Egginton S, St John JC Mitochondrial DNA replication during differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells. J Cell Sci 120 4025-4034, 2007
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Campbell HA, Fraser KPP, Peck LS, Bishop CM, Egginton S Life in the fast lane: The free-ranging activity, heart rate and metabolism of an Antarctic fish tracked in temperate waters JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY 349 142-151, 2007

Nash GB, Egginton S Modelling the Effects of the Haemodynamic Environment on Endothelial Cell Responses Relevant to Angiogenesis In Angiogenesis Assays: A Critical Appraisal of Current Techniques , 2007
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Campbell HA, Egginton S The vagus nerve mediates cardio-respiratory coupling that changes with metabolic demand in a temperate nototheniod fish. J Exp Biol 210 2472-2480, 2007
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Deveci D, Egginton S Effects of acute and chronic cooling on cardiorespiratory depression in rodents Journal of Physiological Sciences 57 73-79, 2007
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Jetha KA, Egginton S, Nash GB Changes in the integrin-mediated adhesion of human neutrophils in the cold and after rewarming. Biorheology 44 37-49, 2007
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Milkiewicz M, Hudlicka O, Shiner R, Egginton S, Brown MD Vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA and protein do not change in parallel during non-inflammatory skeletal muscle ischaemia in rat. J Physiol 577 671-678, 2006
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Whiteley NM, Christiansen JS, Egginton S Polar cod, Boreogadus saida (Gadidae), show an intermediate stress response between Antarctic and temperate fishes Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 145 493-501, 2006
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Taylor EWT, Campbell HA, Levings JJ, Young MJ, Butler PJ, Egginton S Coupling of the respiratory rhythm in fish with activity in hypobranchial nerves and with heartbeat. Physiol Biochem Zool 79 1000-1009, 2006
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Degens H, Deveci D, Botto-Van Bemden A, Hoofd LJC, Egginton S Maintenance of heterogeneity of capillary spacing is essential for adequate oxygenation in the soleus muscle of the growing rat Microcirculation 13 467-476, 2006
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Williams JL, Cartland D, Rudge JS, Egginton S VEGF trap abolishes shear stress- and overload-dependent angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. Microcirculation 13 499-509, 2006
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Campbell HA, Klepacki JZ, Egginton S A new method in applying power spectral statistics to examine cardio-respiratory interactions in fish. J Theor Biol 241 410-419, 2006
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Campbell HA, Leite CAC, Wang T, Skals M, Abe AS, Egginton S, Rantin FT, Bishop CM, Taylor EW Evidence for a respiratory component, similar to mammalian respiratory sinus arrhythmia, in the heart rate variability signal from the rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus Journal of Experimental Biology 209 2628-2636, 2006
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Hauton D, Richards SB, Egginton S The role of the liver in lipid metabolism during cold acclimation in non-hibernator rodents. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 144 372-381, 2006
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Williams JL, Weichert A, Zakrzewicz A, Da Silva-Azevedo L, Pries AR, Baum O, Egginton S Differential gene and protein expression in abluminal sprouting and intraluminal splitting forms of angiogenesis. Clin Sci (Lond) 110 587-595, 2006
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Egginton S, Campbell H, Davison W Cardiovascular control in Antarctic fish Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 53 1115-1130, 2006
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Williams JL, Cartland D, Hussain A, Egginton S A differential role for nitric oxide in two forms of physiological angiogenesis in mouse. J Physiol 570 445-454, 2006
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Campbell HA, Taylor EW, Egginton S Does respiratory sinus arrhythmia occur in fishes? Biol Lett 1 484-487, 2005
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Campbell HA, Bishop CM, Davies DA, Egginton S Recording long-term heart rate in Paranotothenia angustata using an electronic datalogger JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY 67 1150-1156, 2005

Ramsden JD, Buchanan MA, Egginton S, Watkinson JC, Mautner V, Eggo MC Complete inhibition of goiter in mice requires combined gene therapy modification of angiopoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor signaling. Endocrinology 146 2895-2902, 2005
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Sänger AM, Davison W, Egginton S Muscle fine structure reflects ecotype in two nototheniids Journal of Fish Biology 66 1371-1386, 2005
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Milkiewicz M, Pugh CW, Egginton S Inhibition of endogenous HIF inactivation induces angiogenesis in ischaemic skeletal muscles of mice. J Physiol 560 21-26, 2004
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McKenzie DJ, Wong S, Randall DJ, Egginton S, Taylor EW, Farrell AP The effects of sustained exercise and hypoxia upon oxygen tensions in the red muscle of rainbow trout. J Exp Biol 207 3629-3637, 2004
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Sabharwal R, Johns EJ, Egginton S The influence of acute hypothermia on renal function of anaesthetized euthermic and acclimatized rats. Exp Physiol 89 455-463, 2004
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Sabharwal R, Coote JH, Johns EJ, Egginton S Effect of hypothermia on baroreflex control of heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity in anaesthetized rats. J Physiol 557 247-259, 2004
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Campbell HA, Taylor EW, Egginton S The use of power spectral analysis to determine cardiorespiratory control in the short-horned sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius Journal of Experimental Biology 207 1969-1976, 2004
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Deveci D, Egginton S Cold exposure differentially stimulates angiogenesis in glycolytic and oxidative muscles of rats and hamsters Experimental Physiology 88 741-746, 2003
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Milkiewicz M, Hudlicka O, Verhaeg J, Egginton S, Brown MD Differential expression of Flk-I and Flt-I in rat skeletal muscle in response to chronic ischaemia: favourable effect of muscle activity CLINICAL SCIENCE 105 473-482, 2003

Badr I, Brown MD, Egginton S, Hudlická O, Milkiewicz M, Verhaeg J Differences in local environment determine the site of physiological angiogenesis in rat skeletal muscle. Exp Physiol 88 565-568, 2003
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Hudlicka O, Graciotti L, Fulgenzi G, Brown MD, Egginton S, Milkiewicz M, Granata AL The effect of chronic skeletal muscle stimulation on capillary growth in the rat: are sensory nerve fibres involved? JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON 546 813-822, 2003

EGGINTON STUART, GERRITSEN MARY Lumen Formation In Vivo Versus In Vitro Observations Microcirculation 10 45-61, 2003

Jetha KA, Egginton S, Nash GB Increased resistance of neutrophils to deformation upon cooling and rate of recovery on rewarming. Biorheology 40 567-576, 2003
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Egginton S, Gerritsen M Lumen formation: in vivo versus in vitro observations. Microcirculation 10 45-61, 2003
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O'Brien KM, Skilbeck C, Sidell BD, Egginton S Muscle fine structure may maintain the function of oxidative fibres in haemoglobinless Antarctic fishes JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY 206 411-421, 2003

Deveci D, Egginton S The effects of reduced temperature and photoperiod on body composition in hibernator and non-hibernator rodents Journal of Thermal Biology 27 467-478, 2002
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Rivilis I, Milkiewicz M, Boyd P, Goldstein J, Brown MD, Egginton S, Hansen FM, Hudlicka O, Haas TL Differential involvement of MMP-2 and VEGF during muscle stretch-versus shear stress-induced angiogenesis AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY 283 H1430-H1438, 2002

Deveci D, Egginton S Differing mechanisms of cold-induced changes in capillary supply in m. tibialis anterior of rats and hamsters Journal of Experimental Biology 205 829-840, 2002
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Egginton S, Skilbeck C, Hoofd L, Calvo J, Johnston IA Peripheral oxygen transport in skeletal muscle of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic notothenioid fish Journal of Experimental Biology 205 769-779, 2002
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Deveci D, Egginton S Muscle ischaemia in rats may be relieved by overload-induced angiogenesis Experimental Physiology 87 479-488, 2002
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Egginton S Temperature and angiogenesis: the possible role of mechanical factors in capillary growth. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 132 773-787, 2002
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Deveci D, Marshall JM, Egginton S Chronic hypoxia induces prolonged angiogenesis in skeletal muscles of rat Experimental Physiology 87 287-291, 2002
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Egginton S, Fairney J, Bratcher J Differential effects of cold exposure on muscle fibre composition and capillary supply in hibernator and non-hibernator rodents. Exp Physiol 86 629-639, 2001
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Milkiewicz M, Brown MD, Egginton S, Hudlicka O Association between shear stress, angiogenesis, and VEGF in skeletal muscles in vivo. Microcirculation 8 229-241, 2001
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Nash GB, Abbitt KB, Tate K, Jetha KA, Egginton S Changes in the mechanical and adhesive behaviour of human neutrophils on cooling in vitro. Pflugers Arch 442 762-770, 2001
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Deveci D, Marshall JM, Egginton S Relationship between capillary angiogenesis, fiber type, and fiber size in chronic systemic hypoxia AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY 281 H241-H252, 2001

Egginton S, Forster ME, Davison W Control of vascular tone in notothenioid fishes is determined by phylogeny, not environmental temperature AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY 280 R1197-R1205, 2001

Deveci D, Stone PCW, Egginton S Differential effect of cold acclimation on blood composition in rats and hamsters Journal of Comparative Physiology - B Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology 171 135-143, 2001
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Egginton S, Zhou AL, Brown MD, Hudlická O Unorthodox angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. Cardiovasc Res 49 634-646, 2001
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Hansen-Smith F, Egginton S, Zhou AL, Hudlicka O Growth of arterioles precedes that of capillaries in stretch-induced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle Microvascular Research 62 1-14, 2001
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Haas TL, Milkiewicz M, Davis SJ, Zhou AL, Egginton S, Brown MD, Madri JA, Hudlicka O Matrix metalloproteinase activity is required for activity-induced angiogenesis in rat skeletal muscle AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY 279 H1540-H1547, 2000

Egginton S, Hudlická O Selective long-term electrical stimulation of fast glycolytic fibres increases capillary supply but not oxidative enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscles. Exp Physiol 85 567-573, 2000
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Egginton S, Zhou AL, Brown MD, Hudlická O The role of pericytes in controlling angiogenesis in vivo. Adv Exp Med Biol 476 81-99, 2000
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Egginton S, Cordiner S, Skilbeck C Thermal compensation of peripheral oxygen transport in skeletal muscle of seasonally acclimatized trout American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 279 R375-R388, 2000
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Whiteley NM, Egginton S Antarctic fishes have a limited capacity for catecholamine synthesis Journal of Experimental Biology 202 3623-3629, 1999
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Hawker MJ, Egginton S The effect of stimulation frequency on blood flow in rat fast skeletal muscles. Exp Physiol 84 941-946, 1999
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Deveci D, Egginton S Development of the fluorescent microsphere technique for quantifying regional blood flow in small mammals. Exp Physiol 84 615-630, 1999
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Taylor SE, Egginton S, Taylor EW, Franklin CE, Johnston IA Estimation of intracellular pH in muscle of fishes from different thermal environments JOURNAL OF THERMAL BIOLOGY 24 199-208, 1999

Egginton S The influence of environmental temperature on microvascular development in fish Zoology 102 164-172, 1999
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Egginton S, Hudlická O Early changes in performance, blood flow and capillary fine structure in rat fast muscles induced by electrical stimulation. J Physiol 515 ( Pt 1) 265-275, 1999
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Egginton S, Hudlická O, Brown MD, Walter H, Weiss JB, Bate A Capillary growth in relation to blood flow and performance in overloaded rat skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985) 85 2025-2032, 1998
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Hansen-Smith F, Egginton S, Hudlicka O Growth of arterioles in chronically stimulated adult rat skeletal muscle Microcirculation 5 49-59, 1998
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Moerland TS, Egginton S Intracellular pH of muscle and temperature: Insight from in vivo<sup>31</sup>P NMR measurements in a stenothermal antarctic teleost (Harpagifer antarcticus) Journal of Thermal Biology 23 275-282, 1998
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Zhou AL, Egginton S, Brown MD, Hudlicka O Capillary growth in overloaded, hypertrophic adult rat skeletal muscle: an ultrastructural study. Anat Rec 252 49-63, 1998
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Zhou A, Egginton S, Hudlická O, Brown MD Internal division of capillaries in rat skeletal muscle in response to chronic vasodilator treatment with alpha1-antagonist prazosin. Cell Tissue Res 293 293-303, 1998
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Tuurala H, Egginton S, Soivio A Cold exposure increases branchial water-blood barrier thickness in the eel JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY 53 451-455, 1998

Brown MD, Hudlicka O, Egginton S, Hansen-Smith F Sequence of vascular growth induced by intense activity in rat skeletal muscle, 1998

Egginton S Anatomical adaptations for peripheral oxygen transport at high and low temperatures South African Journal of Zoology 33 119-128, 1998
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Bishop CM, Butler PJ, El Haj AJ, Egginton S Comparative development in captive and migratory populations of the barnacle goose. Physiol Zool 71 198-207, 1998
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Brown MD, Walter H, Hansen-Smith FM, Hudlická O, Egginton S Lack of involvement of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) in capillary growth in skeletal muscles exposed to long-term contractile activity. Angiogenesis 2 81-91, 1998
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HANSEN-SMITH FAY, EGGINTON S, HUDLICKA O Growth of Arterioles in Chronically Stimulated Adult Rat Skeletal Muscle Microcirculation 5 49-59, 1998

Cordiner S, Egginton S Effects of seasonal temperature acclimatization on muscle metabolism in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 16 333-343, 1997
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Egginton S, Cordiner S Cold-induced angiogenesis in seasonally acclimatized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Journal of Experimental Biology 200 2263-2268, 1997
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Zhou AL, Egginton S, Hudlicka O Ultrastructural study of three types of physiological angiogenesis in adult rat skeletal muscle. FASEB JOURNAL 11 370-370, 1997

Hoofd L, Egginton S The possible role of intracellular lipid in determining oxygen delivery to fish skeletal muscle Respiration Physiology 107 191-202, 1997
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Egginton S A comparison of the response to induced exercise in red- and white-blooded Antarctic fishes Journal of Comparative Physiology - B Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology 167 129-134, 1997
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Egginton S Control of tissue blood flow at very low temperatures Journal of Thermal Biology 22 403-407, 1997
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Egginton S The physiological response of Antarctic fishes to environmental and experimental stress Cybium 21 415-421, 1997
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Ahmed SK, Egginton S, Jakeman PM, Mannion AF, Ross HF Is human skeletal muscle capillary supply modelled according to fibre size or fibre type? Exp Physiol 82 231-234, 1997
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Egginton S, Cordiner S Cold-induced angiogenesis in seasonally acclimatized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) The Journal of experimental biology 200 2263-2268, 1997
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Thomson IA, Egginton S, Simms MH, Hudlická O Effect of muscle ischaemia and iloprost during femorodistal reconstruction on capillary endothelial swelling. Int J Microcirc Clin Exp 16 284-290, 1996
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Brown MD, Egginton S, Hudlicka O, Zhou AL Appearance of the capillary endothelial glycocalyx in chronically stimulated rat skeletal muscles in relation to angiogenesis. Exp Physiol 81 1043-1046, 1996
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Hansen-Smith FM, Hudlicka O, Egginton S In vivo angiogenesis in adult rat skeletal muscle: Early changes in capillary network architecture and ultrastructure Cell and Tissue Research 286 123-136, 1996
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Egginton S Effect of temperature on the optimal substrate forβ-oxidation Journal of Fish Biology 49 753-758, 1996
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Lecklin T, Egginton S, Nash GB Effect of temperature on the resistance of individual red blood cells to flow through capillary-sized apertures. Pflugers Arch 432 753-759, 1996
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Bishop CM, Butler PJ, El Haj AJ, Egginton S, Loonen MJJE The morphological development of the locomotor and cardiac muscles of the migratory barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) Journal of Zoology 239 1-15, 1996
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Taylor SE, Egginton S, Taylor EW Seasonal temperature acclimatisation of rainbow trout: Cardiovascular and morphometric influences on maximal sustainable exercise level JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY 199 835-845, 1996

Egginton S Blood rheology of Antarctic fishes: Viscosity adaptations at very low temperatures Journal of Fish Biology 48 513-521, 1996
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Egginton S, Hudlicka O, Brown MD, Graciotti L, Granata AL In vivo pericyte-endothelial cell interaction during angiogenesis in adult cardiac and skeletal muscle. Microvasc Res 51 213-228, 1996
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Taylor S, Egginton S, Taylor E Seasonal temperature acclimatisation of rainbow trout: cardiovascular and morphometric influences on maximal sustainable exercise level The Journal of experimental biology 199 835-845, 1996
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Lecklin T, Nash G, Egginton S Do fish acclimated to low temperature improve microcirculatory perfusion by adapting red cell rheology? J Exp Biol 198 1801-1808, 1995
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Egginton S, Cordiner S Effect of fixation protocols on muscle preservation and in situ diffusion distances Journal of Fish Biology 47 59-69, 1995

Hudlicka O, Brown MD, Egginton S, Dawson JM Effect of long-term electrical stimulation on vascular supply and fatigue in chronically ischemic muscles. J Appl Physiol (1985) 77 1317-1324, 1994
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Hudlicka O, Egginton S, Brown MD, Okyayuz-Baklouti I Effect of torbafylline on muscle blood flow, performance, and capillary supply in ischemic muscles subjected to varying levels of activity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 72 811-817, 1994
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Thomson IA, Egginton S, Hudlická O, Sims MH Iloprost reduces leukocyte adhesion in skeletal muscle venules following ischaemia in a rat model of femorodistal bypass. Eur J Vasc Surg 8 335-341, 1994
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Wilson RW, Egginton S Assessment of maximum sustainable swimming performance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Journal of Experimental Biology 192 299-305, 1994

Egginton S Stress response in two Antarctic teleosts (Notothenia coriiceps Richardson and Chaenocephalus aceratus Lönnberg) following capture and surgery Journal of Comparative Physiology B 164 482-491, 1994
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Egginton S, Hudlicka O, Glover M Fine structure of capillaries in ischaemic and non ischaemic rat striated muscle. Effect of torbafylline. Int J Microcirc Clin Exp 12 33-44, 1993
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Nash GB, Egginton S Comparative rheology of human and trout red blood cells. J Exp Biol 174 109-122, 1993
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Egginton S, Hudlicka O Regional capillary perfusion in muscles with limited blood supply: effects of torbafylline. Pflugers Arch 421 336-342, 1992
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Hudlicka O, Brown M, Egginton S Angiogenesis in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Physiol Rev 72 369-417, 1992


Egginton S, Fisher AC, Nash GB Comparative studies on thermal sensitivity of haemorheology; Use of human and fish red blood cells Clinical Hemorheology 12 677-687, 1992

Egginton S, Taylor EW, Wilson RW, Johnston IA, Moon TW Stress response in the Antarctic teleosts (Notothenia neglecta Nybelin and N. rossii Richardson) Journal of Fish Biology 38 225-235, 1991
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Egginton S, Hudlická O The effect of torbafylline on enzyme activities in fast and slow muscles with limited blood supply. Comp Biochem Physiol C 99 163-168, 1991
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Hargreaves D, Egginton S, Hudlická O Changes in capillary perfusion induced by different patterns of activity in rat skeletal muscle. Microvasc Res 40 14-28, 1990
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Egginton S Numerical and areal density estimates of fibre type composition in a skeletal muscle (rat extensor digitorum longus). J Anat 168 73-80, 1990
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Egginton S, Turek Z Comparative distributions of numerical and areal indices of tissue capillarity. Adv Exp Med Biol 277 161-169, 1990

Hoofd L, Turek Z, Egginton S Concentric oxygen diffusion in tissue with heterogeneous permeability and consumption Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 277 13-20, 1990

Turek Z, Olders J, Hoofd L, Egginton S, Kreuzer F, Rakusan K PO2 histograms in various models of tissue oxygenation in skeletal muscle. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 248 227-237, 1989

Egginton S, Sidell BD Thermal acclimation induces adaptive changes in subcellular structure of fish skeletal muscle American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 256 1-9, 1989
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Egginton S, Ross HF Influence of muscle phenotype on local capillary supply. Adv Exp Med Biol 248 281-291, 1989
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Egginton S, Ross HF Quantifying capillary distribution in four dimensions. Adv Exp Med Biol 248 271-280, 1989
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Egginton S, Turek Z, Hoofd LJ Differing patterns of capillary distribution in fish and mammalian skeletal muscle. Respir Physiol 74 383-396, 1988
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Brown MD, Egginton S Capillary density and fine structure in rabbit papillary muscles after a high dose of norepinephrine. Microvasc Res 36 1-12, 1988
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Egginton S Effect of inter-animal variation of a nested sampling design for stereological analysis of skeletal muscle Acta Stereologica 7 81-89, 1988
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Egginton S Effects of an anabolic hormone on striated muscle growth and performance. Pflugers Arch 410 349-355, 1987
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Egginton S Effects of an anabolic hormone on aerobic capacity of rat striated muscle. Pflugers Arch 410 356-361, 1987
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Egginton S, Turek Z, Hoofd L Morphometric analysis of sparse capillary networks. Adv Exp Med Biol 215 1-12, 1987
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Egginton S Metamorphosis of the American eel, Anguilla rostrata LeSeur: III. Contractile characteristics of skeletal muscle. Journal of Experimental Zoology 243 39-50, 1987
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Egginton S Is this science? Nature 321 806-, 1986


Egginton S Metamorphosis of the American eel, Anguilla rostrata LeSeur: I. Changes in metabolism of skeletal muscle. The Journal of experimental zoology 237 173-184, 1986
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Egginton S Metamorphosis of the American eel, Anguilla rostrata Le Seur: II. Structural reorganisation of the locomotory musculature Journal of Experimental Zoology 238 297-309, 1986

Egginton S, Johnston IA Effects of acclimation temperature on routine metabolism muscle mitrochondrial volume density and capillary supply in the elver (Anguilla anguilla L.) Journal of Thermal Biology 9 165-170, 1984
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Egginton S, Johnston IA An estimate of capillary anisotropy and determination of surface and volume densities of capillaries in skeletal muscles of the conger eel (Conger conger L.) Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 68 603-617, 1983
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Egginton S, Johnston IA A morphometric analysis of regional differences in myotomal muscle ultrastructure in the juvenile eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) Cell and Tissue Research 222 579-596, 1982

Egginton S, Johnston IA Muscle fibre differentiation and vascularisation in the juvenile European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) Cell and Tissue Research 222 563-577, 1982
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Egginton S, Syeda F Capillaries, Capillarity, and Angiogenesis In Reference Module in Life Sciences ,
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Egginton S, Syeda F Capillaries, capillarity and angiogenesis In LIFE 03143 ,

Rogers NJ, Jeffery HC, Claire S, Lewis DJ, Zikeli G, Hodges NJ, Egginton S, Nash GB, Pikramenou Z Tailoring iridium luminescence and gold nanoparticle size for imaging of microvascular blood flow. Nanomedicine -,
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Kissane RWP, Egginton S, Askew GN Regional variation in the mechanical properties and fibre type composition of the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle Experimental Physiology -,
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