Prof Alison Baker

BA, MA, Cambridge; PhD 1985, Edinburgh
Professor in Plant Cell and Molecular Biology
School of Molecular and Cellular Biology

Background: Postdoctoral work at the Biozentrum, Universitat Basel, Switzerland until 1988. Assistant Lecturer, then Lecturer at Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge until 1995 when joined University of Leeds as Lecturer. Senior Lecturer from August 1998. Reader from 2004. Professor from 2008.

Contact: Manton 9.05, +44(0) 113 34 33045, email address for  

You can read more about Prof Baker's interests here:

Figure 1: (ABa)

Research Interests

Membrane transport processes in plants

My group is interested in membrane transport processes in plants. Much of our work has focused on peroxisomes, essential cellular organelles that are involved in an extraordinarily wide range of processes from primary metabolism, signaling and defence responses [1,2]. We have used a range of biochemical, cell biological, genomic and chemical biology [3,4] approaches to address the mechanism of transport of both proteins and metabolites across the peroxisome membrane. In the latter case we have identified and characterized a peroxisomal ABC transporter which acts as the primary transport route for fatty acids and pro-hormones into peroxisomes [5-7] and shown that it possesses a novel thioesterase activity that cleaves acyl CoA substrates upon transport [8]. We have recently initiated a new area of research studying the families of membrane proteins involved in uptake and transport of phosphate with emphasis on structure-function relationships, to help understand whether these proteins play a role in phosphorus use efficiency.  


[1] Hu, J., Baker, A.  Bartel, B. Linka, N.  Mullen, R.T. Reumann, S. and Zolman, B.K. (2012) Plant Peroxisomes, Biogenesis and Function. Plant Cell 24: 2279-2303.

[2] Theodoulou, F.L.,   Bernhardt, K., Linka, N. and Baker A. (2013) Peroxisomal membrane proteins: multiple trafficking routes and multiple functions. Biochemical Journal 451, 345-352.

[3] Brown, LA, O'Leary-Steele, C, Brookes, P, Armitage, L, Kepinski, S, Warriner, SL.,Baker, A (2011) A small molecule with differential effects on the PTS1 and PTS2 peroxisome matrix import pathways Plant Journal 65, 980-990.

[4] Brown LA, Larson T.L., Graham I.A., Hawes, C., Paudyal R., Warriner S.L., and Baker A (2013) An inhibitor of oil body mobilization in Arabidopsis. New Phytologist.200, 641-649.

[5] Dietrich D, Schmuths, H., De Marcos Lousa C., Baldwin JM., Baldwin SA., Baker A., Theodoulou FL and Holdsworth MJ (2009) Mutations in the Arabidopsis Peroxisomal ABC Transporter COMATOSE Allow Differentiation between Multiple Functions In Planta; Insights from an Alleic Series. Molecular Biology of the Cell 20, 530-543.

[6] Nyathi, Y., De Marcos Lousa C., van Roermund C.W.T., Wanders, R.J.A., Johnson, B.,Baldwin, S.A., Theodoulou F. L. and Baker A. (2010) The Arabidopsis Peroxisomal ABC transporter Comatose complements the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pxa1pxa2D mutant for metabolism of long chain fatty acids, and exhibits fatty acyl CoA stimulated ATPase activity.

Journal of Biological Chemistry 285, 29892-29902.

[7] Nyathi, Y., Zhang, X., Baldwin JM, Bernhardt K, Johnson B, Baldwin SA, Theodoulou FLBaker A (2012) Pseudo half molecules of the ABC transporter COMATOSE bind PEX19 and target to peroxisomes independently, but are both required for activity. FEBS LettersFEBS Letters 586, 2280-2286

[8] De Marcos Lousa, C. van Roermund, C.W.T. Postis, V.L.G. Dietrich, D Kerr, I.D. Wanders, R.J.A. Baldwin, S.A. Baker, A* and Theodoulou, F. L. (2013) Intrinsic acyl-CoA thioesterase activity of a peroxisomal ABC transporter is required for transport and metabolism of fatty acids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 110 1279-1284. * Corresponding author


Current Projects

1.Biochemical Characterisation of the ABC transporter COMATOSE (BBSRC funded)

The import of substrates for peroxisomal β-oxidation, an essential pathway in lipid signalling and metabolism in all organisms, is mediated by members of ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily D. In our previous BBSRC-funded research we achieved the first purification of such a transporter, the Arabidopsis peroxisomal protein COMATOSE (ABCD1/ CTS), in a form that retained ATPase activity. In a paper recently published in PNAS we demonstrated that insect cell membranes expressing CTS exhibit a novel acyl CoA thioesterase activity which is intrinsic to the transporter. We also showed that CTS is both functionally and physically associated with the peroxisomal Acyl CoA Activating Enzymes (AAEs) LACS6/7, and, together with studies of fatty acid metabolism in yeast, this suggests that thioesterase activity is critical for the transport function not only of CTS but also of many other ABCDs. It is therefore of importance in organisms ranging from fungi and plants to man, where genetic defects in the homologous transporter ALDP result in the serious neurological disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystophy. At present, the molecular mechanisms linking thioesterase activity, AAE binding and fatty acid transport, are unknown, as is the biological function of these linkages. The aim of the proposed research is to understand these mechanisms and their functional roles by addressing the following objectives:

  1. To characterise the relationships between fatty acyl CoA transport, the ATPase and thioesterase activities of CTS, and the binding of Acyl CoA synthetases,
  2. To test the role of ABCD-dependent thioesterase activity in metabolic regulation.


Prof S.A. Baldwin (Leeds)

Dr Freddie Theodoulou (Rothamsted Research)

Prof Ron Wanders and Dr Carlo van Roermund (Amsterdam Medical Centre)


2. Synthetic organelles: manipulating peroxisomal protein import to create designer compartments (Leverhulme Trust Funded).

All but the simplest cells have evolved organelles to provide optimal environments for specific aspects of metabolism such as respiration, photosynthesis or the folding and modification of specific sets of proteins. Photosynthetic organisms are the only source of truly renewable resources, as they alone can convert sunlight into biomass. A body of work has looked at using various plant organelles as biofactories. Unfortunately, a drawback of using an organelle as a ‘biofactory’ is that as more of the desired product is accumulated in the organelle the less well the organelle can perform its natural functions, resulting in a decrease in plant fitness. A generic solution is the production of a synthetic organelle that can perform user-defined functions. Such an organelle will physically separate engineered and endogenous pathways yet still benefit from the metabolic and replicative environment of the cell. This has been achieved for ribosomes but there is insufficient knowledge to achieve this for membrane bound organelles. We are using principles of rational design and molecular evolution to test strategies for the development of synthetic and semisynthetic organelles within plant cells.


Dr Stuart Warriner (Leeds)

Prof Alan Berry (Leeds)

Dr Andrew Cuming (Leeds)


3. IMPACT: Improved Millets for Phosphate Acquisition and Transport. (EU Funded)

This project aims to establish foxtail millet as a model system for studying phosphate acquisition and phosphate use efficiency. Millets are highly nutritious and drought resistant members of the poaceae grass family. The PHT1 family of membrane transporters is under investigation. We have identified 12 members of this family and are investigating their expression and function to determine whether they can contribute to increased phosphate acquisition or use efficiency.

4. Investigation of the structure-function relationships of Aluminium activated malate channels.

TaALMT1 (Triticum aestivum aluminium-activated malate transporter 1) is the founding member of a gene family of plant anion channels with vital roles such as stomatal opening, anion homeostasis, and organic anion efflux. TaALMT1 is part of a sub-group of proteins that play a role in aluminium-detoxification in acid soils, which represent over 50% of potentially arable soils worldwide. Members of this family have been physiologically characterised in planta, andby electrophysiological measurements, but they have not been subject to detailed structural studies.

We aim to express, purify, and characterise members of this family from wheat, Arabidopsis and other plants, as well as homologues from bacteria to gain molecular-level insight into their structure and function. Key to this will be X-ray crystallography, in concert with functional assays and biochemical studies.


 Prof SA Baldwin and Dr S.P.Muench (Leeds)


Faculty Research and Innovation

Studentship information

Undergraduate project topics:

  • Laboratory
  • -Site directed mutagenesis of a peroxisomal ABC transporter.
  • Literature
  • -The potential for Crop Plant Improvement using Acid Soil-Resistance Mechanisms.
  • -Can differences between peroxisomes and glycosomes be exploited for development of novel trypanocidal drugs
  • -Algal biofuels, hype or hope

Postgraduate studentship areas:

  • Mutagenesis and functional analysis of a peroxisomal ABC transporter
  • Expression and function of PHT1 family proteins in foxtail millet

See also:

Modules taught

BIOC1301 - Introductory Integrated Biochemistry: the Molecules and Processes of Life
BIOC2303 - Intermediate Biochemistry: Skills
BIOC3111/12/BIOL3112 B - ATU - How to build organelles
BIOC3160 - Laboratory/Literature/Computing Research Project
BIOL1305 - Integrated Skills in Biosciences 1
BIOL2210/BIOC2301 - Integrated Biochemistry/Biological Membranes
BIOL2301/03 - Intermediate Skills - BIOL
BIOL3306 - Biological Sciences Research Project
BIOL3397 - Biotechnology Research Project
BIOL5152M - Topics in Plant Science
BIOL5294M - MSc Bioscience Research Project Proposal
BIOL5371M - Research Planning and Scientific Communication
BIOL5373M - Protein Engineering Laboratory Project
BIOL5392M - Bioscience MSc Research Project
FOBS1135/BIOL1112 - The Basis of Life/The molecules of life
MICR2120/BIOC2301 - Integrated Biochemistry/Medical Bacteriology
SPSC2203 - Exercise Biochemistry

Academic roles

PGT Programme Leader - MSc Bioscience
PGR Progression Tutor - School of Molecular and Cellular Biology
PGT Programme Leader sub-degrees - MSc Bioscience (Plant Science and Biotechnology)


Member of Graduate School Committee (Progression Tutor (SMCB))
Member of Masters Taught Student Education Committee (Programme Leader: MSc Bioscience programmes)

Centre membership: The Centre for Plant Sciences

Group Leader Prof Alison Baker  (Professor in Plant Cell and Molecular Biology)

Membrane transport processes in plants 

Dr Lili Chu  (Research Fellow )


Yousef Al-Rhoom Al-Hajaya (Primary supervisor) 50% FTE
Jack Wright (Primary supervisor) 34% FTE
Sophie Moul (Co-supervisor) 50% FTE
Nicola Wood (Co-supervisor) 45% FTE

Ceasar SA, Baker A, Ignacimuthu S Functional characterization of the PHT1 family transporters of foxtail millet with development of a novel Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure Scientific Reports 7, 2017
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Cross LL, Paudyal R, Kamisugi Y, Berry A, Cuming AC, Baker A, Warriner SL Towards designer organelles by subverting the peroxisomal import pathway Nature Communications 8, 2017
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Qi W, Manfield IW, Muench SP, Baker A AtSPX1 affects the AtPHR1 -DNA binding equilibrium by binding monomeric AtPHR1 in solution Biochemical Journal 474 3675-3687, 2017
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Ceasar SA, Baker A, Muench SP, Ignacimuthu S, Baldwin SA The conservation of phosphate-binding residues among PHT1 transporters suggests that distinct transport affinities are unlikely to result from differences in the phosphate-binding site Biochemical Society Transactions 44 1541-1548, 2016
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Baker A, Lanyon-Hogg T, Warriner SL Correction: Peroxisome protein import: a complex journey. Biochemical Society transactions 44 1183-, 2016

Palmer AJ, Baker A, Muench SP The varied functions of aluminium-activated malate transporters-much more than aluminium resistance Biochemical Society Transactions 44 856-862, 2016
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Theodoulou FL, Carrier DJ, Schaedler TA, Baldwin SA, Baker A How to move an amphipathic molecule across a lipid bilayer: different mechanisms for different ABC transporters? Biochemical Society Transactions 44 774-782, 2016
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Cross LL, Ebeed HT, Baker A Peroxisome biogenesis, protein targeting mechanisms and PEX gene functions in plants. Biochim Biophys Acta 1863 850-862, 2016
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McLachlan DH, Lan J, Geilfus C-M, Dodd AN, Larson T, Baker A, Hõrak H, Kollist H, He Z, Graham I, Mickelbart MV, Hetherington AM The Breakdown of Stored Triacylglycerols Is Required during Light-Induced Stomatal Opening. Curr Biol 26 707-712, 2016
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Bhogal MS, Lanyon-Hogg T, Johnston KA, Warriner SL, Baker A Covalent Label Transfer between Peroxisomal Importomer Components Reveals Export-driven Import Interactions. J Biol Chem 291 2460-2468, 2016
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Kamisugi Y, Mitsuya S, El-Shami M, Knight CD, Cuming AC, Baker A Giant peroxisomes in a moss (Physcomitrella patens) peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 mutant. New Phytol 209 576-589, 2016
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Baker A, Carrier DJ, Schaedler T, Waterham HR, van Roermund CW, Theodoulou FL Peroxisomal ABC transporters: functions and mechanism. Biochem Soc Trans 43 959-965, 2015
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Baker A, Ceasar SA, Palmer AJ, Paterson JB, Qi W, Muench SP, Baldwin SA Replace, reuse, recycle: improving the sustainable use of phosphorus by plants. J Exp Bot 66 3523-3540, 2015
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Skoulding NS, Chowdhary G, Deus MJ, Baker A, Reumann S, Warriner SL Experimental validation of plant peroxisomal targeting prediction algorithms by systematic comparison of in vivo import efficiency and in vitro PTS1 binding affinity. J Mol Biol 427 1085-1101, 2015
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Magee T, Henderson P, Baker A, Postis V, Muench S A Tribute to Stephen Allan Baldwin Molecular membrane biology 32 33-34, 2015

Paudyal R, Jamaluddin A, Warren JP, Doyle SM, Robert S, Warriner SL, Baker A Erratum: Trafficking modulator TENin1 inhibits endocytosis, causes endomembrane protein accumulation at the pre-vacuolar compartment and impairs gravitropic response in Arabidopsis thaliana (Biochemical Journal (2014) 460 (177-185)) Biochemical Journal 464 291-, 2014

Baker A, Paudyal R The life of the peroxisome: from birth to death Current Opinion in Plant Biology 22 39-47, 2014
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Ceasar SA, Hodge A, Baker A, Baldwin SA Phosphate concentration and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation influence the growth, yield and expression of twelve PHT1 family phosphate transporters in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) PLoS ONE 9, 2014
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Levesley A, Paxton S, Collins R, Baker A, Knight C Engaging students with plant science: the plant science TREE New Phytologist 203 1041-1048, 2014

Lanyon-Hogg T, Hooper J, Gunn S, Warriner SL, Baker A PEX14 binding to Arabidopsis PEX5 has differential effects on PTS1 and PTS2 cargo occupancy of the receptor FEBS Letters 588 2223-2229, 2014
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Paudyal R, Jamaluddin A, Warren JP, Doyle SM, Robert S, Warriner SL, Baker A Trafficking modulator TENin1 inhibits endocytosis, causes endomembrane protein accumulation at the pre-vacuolar compartment and impairs gravitropic response in Arabidopsis thaliana Biochemical Journal 460 177-185, 2014
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Theodoulou FL, Baldwin SA, Baldwin JM, Baker A Plant Peroxisomal ABC Transporters: Flexible and Unusual PLANT ABC TRANSPORTERS 77-101, 2014

Brown L-A, Larson TR, Graham IA, Hawes C, Paudyal R, Warriner SL, Baker A An inhibitor of oil body mobilization in Arabidopsis New Phytologist 200 641-649, 2013
View abstract

Theodoulou FL, Bernhardt K, Linka N, Baker A Peroxisome membrane proteins: Multiple trafficking routes and multiple functions? Biochemical Journal 451 345-352, 2013
View abstract

De Marcos Lousa C, van Roermund CW, Postis VL, Dietrich D, Kerr ID, Wanders RJ, Baldwin SA, Baker A, Theodoulou FL Intrinsic acyl-CoA thioesterase activity of a peroxisomal ATP binding cassette transporter is required for transport and metabolism of fatty acids Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110 1279-1284, 2013
View abstract

Nyathi Y, Zhang X, Baldwin JM, Bernhardt K, Johnson B, Baldwin SA, Theodoulou FL, Baker A Pseudo half-molecules of the ABC transporter, COMATOSE, bind Pex19 and target to peroxisomes independently but are both required for activity. FEBS Lett 586 2280-2286, 2012
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Hu J, Baker A, Bartel B, Linka N, Mullen RT, Reumann S, Zolman BK Plant peroxisomes: biogenesis and function Plant Cell 24 2279-2303, 2012
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Mhamdi A, Noctor G, Baker A Plant catalases: Peroxisomal redox guardians Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 2012
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Zhang XB, Lousa CD, Schutte-Lensink N, Ofman R, Wanders RJ, Baldwin SA, Baker A, Kemp S, Theodoulou FL Conservation of targeting but divergence in function and quality control of peroxisomal ABC transporters: an analysis using cross-kingdom expression BIOCHEM J 436 547-557, 2011

Brown LA, O'Leary-Steele C, Brookes P, Armitage L, Kepinski S, Warriner SL, Baker A A small molecule with differential effects on the PTS1 and PTS2 peroxisome matrix import pathways The Plant Journal 65 980-990, 2011
View abstract

Theodoulou FL, Zhang X, Lousa CDM, Nyathi Y, Baker A Peroxisomal Transport Systems: Roles in Signaling and Metabolism TRANSPORTERS AND PUMPS IN PLANT SIGNALING 327-351, 2011

Nyathi Y, Lousa CDM, van Roermund CW, Wanders RJA, Johnson B, Baldwin SA, Theodoulou FL, Baker A The Arabidopsis Peroxisomal ABC Transporter, Comatose, Complements the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pxa1 pxa2 Delta Mutant for Metabolism of Long-chain Fatty Acids and Exhibits Fatty Acyl-CoA-stimulated ATPase Activity Journal of Biological Chemistry 285 29892-29902, 2010
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Theodoulou FL, Nyathi Y, van Roermund C, Lousa CD, Linka N, Zhang XB, Haslam R, Napier JA, Baldwin SA, Weber A, Baker A Peroxisomal transporters associated with beta-oxidation, 2010

Baker A, Sparkes IA, Brown LA, O'Leary-Steele C, Warriner SL Peroxisome biogenesis and positioning Biochemical Society Transactions 38 807-816, 2010
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Lanyon-Hogg T, Warriner SL, Baker A Getting a camel through the eye of a needle: the import of folded proteins by peroxisomes Biology of the Cell 102 245-263, 2010
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Mitsuya S, El-Shami M, Sparkes IA, Charlton WL, Lousa CD, Johnson B, Baker A Salt stress causes peroxisome proliferation, but inducing peroxisome proliferation does not improve NaCl tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana PLoS One 5 1-10, 2010
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Dietrich D, Schmuths H, Lousa CD, Baldwin JM, Baldwin SA, Baker A, Theodoulou FL, Holdsworth MJ Mutations in the Arabidopsis Peroxisomal ABC Transporter COMATOSE Allow Differentiation between Multiple Functions In Planta: Insights from an Allelic Series MOL BIOL CELL 20 530-543, 2009

De Marcos Lousa C, Dietrich D, Johnson B, Baldwin SA, Holdsworth MJ, Theodoulou FL, Baker A The NBDs that wouldn't die. A cautionary tale in the use of isolated nucleotide binding domains of ABC transporters Communicative and Integrative Biology 2 97-99, 2008
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Brown LA, Baker A Shuttles and cycles: transport of proteins into the peroxisome matrix MOL MEMBR BIOL 25 363-375, 2008

Gunn SJ, Baker A, Bertrarn RD, Warriner SL A novel approach to the solid-phase synthesis of peptides with a tetrazole at the C-terminus SYNLETT 2643-2646, 2007

Footitt S, Dietrich D, Fait A, Fernie AR, Holdsworth MJ, Baker A, Theodoulou FL The COMATOSE ATP-binding cassette transporter is required for full fertility in arabidopsis PLANT PHYSIOL 144 1467-1480, 2007

Nyathi Y, Baker A Plant peroxisomes as a source of signalling molecules BBA-MOL CELL RES 1763 1478-1495, 2006

Footitt S, Marquez J, Schmuths H, Baker A, Theodoulou FL, Holdsworth M Analysis of the role of COMATOSE and peroxisomal beta-oxidation in the determination of germination potential in Arabidopsis J EXP BOT 57 2805-2814, 2006

Hadden DA, Phillipson BA, Johnston KA, Brown LA, Manfield IW, El-Shami M, Sparkes IA, Baker A Arabidopsis PEX19 is a dimeric protein that binds the peroxin PEX10 MOL MEMBR BIOL 23 325-336, 2006

Rylott EL, Eastmond PJ, Gilday AD, Slocombe SP, Larson TR, Baker A, Graham IA The Arabidopsis thaliana multifunctional protein gene (MFP2) of peroxisomal beta-oxidation is essential for seedling establishment PLANT J 45 930-941, 2006

Baker A, Graham IA, Holdsworth M, Smith SM, Theodoulou FL Chewing the fat: beta-oxidation in signalling and development TRENDS PLANT SCI 11 124-132, 2006

Theodoulou FL, Holdsworth M, Baker A Peroxisomal ABC transporters FEBS LETT 580 1139-1155, 2006

Baker A, Sparkes IA Peroxisome protein import: some answers, more questions. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8 640-647, 2005
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Bonsegna S, Slocombe SP, De Bellis L, Baker A AtLACS7 interacts with the TPR domains of the PTS1 receptor PEX5 Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 443 74-81, 2005
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Sparkes IA, Hawes C, Baker A AtPEX2 and AtPEX10 are targeted to peroxisomes independently of known endoplasmic reticulum trafficking routes PLANT PHYSIOL 139 690-700, 2005

Charlton WL, Matsui K, Johnson B, Graham IA, Ohme-Takagi M, Baker A Salt-induced expression of peroxisome-associated genes requires components of the ethylene, jasmonate and abscisic acid signalling pathways PLANT CELL ENVIRON 28 513-524, 2005

Theodoulou FL, Job K, Slocombe SP, Footitt S, Holdsworth M, Baker A, Larson TR, Graham IA Jasmonic Acid Levels Are Reduced in COMATOSE ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Mutants. Implications for Transport of Jasmonate Precursors into Peroxisomes Plant Physiology 137 835-840, 2005

Charlton WL, Johnson B, Graham IA, Baker A Non-coordinate expression of peroxisome biogenesis, beta-oxidation and glyoxylate cycle genes in mature Arabidopsis plants. Plant Cell Rep 23 647-653, 2005
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Sparkes IA, Brandizzi F, Slocombe SP, El-Shami M, Hawes C, Baker A An Arabidopsis pex10 null mutant is embryo lethal, implicating peroxisomes in an essential role during plant embryogenesis. Plant Physiol 133 1809-1819, 2003
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Brown LA, Baker A Peroxisome biogenesis and the role of protein import J CELL MOL MED 7 388-400, 2003

Parkes J, Langer S, Hartig A, Baker A PTS1-independent targeting of isoctrate lyase to peroxisomes requires the PTS1 receptor Pex5p Molecular Membrane Biology 20 61-70, 2003

Murphy MA, Phillipson BA, Baker A, Mullen RT Characterization of the targeting signal of the Arabidopsis 22-kD integral peroxisomal membrane protein Plant Physiology 133 813-828, 2003

Sparkes IA, Baker A Peroxisome biogenesis and protein import in plants, animals and yeasts: enigma and variations? (Review). Mol Membr Biol 19 171-185, 2002
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Footitt S, Slocombe SP, Larner V, Kurup S, Wu Y, Larson T, Graham I, Baker A, Holdsworth M Control of germination and lipid mobilization by COMATOSE, the Arabidopsis homologue of human ALDP The EMBO Journal 21 2912-2922, 2002

Baker A, Graham IA Plant Peroxisomes: Biochemistry, Cell Biology and Biotechnological Applications, 2002

Pritchard SL, Charlton WL, Baker A, Graham IA Germination and storage reserve mobilization arev regulated independently in Arabidopsis The Plant Journal 31 639-648, 2002

Kaplan CP, Thomas JE, Charlton WL, Baker A Identification and characterisation of PEX6 orthologues from plants. Biochim Biophys Acta 1539 173-180, 2001
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Lopez-Huertas E, Charlton WL, Johnson B, Graham IA, Baker A Stress induces peroxisome biogenesis genes The EMBO Journal 19 6770-6777, 2000

Baker A, Charlton WL, Johnson B, Lopez-Huertas E, Oh J, Sparkes I, Thomas J Biochemical and molecular approaches to understanding protein import into peroxisomes Biochemical Society Transactions 28 499-504, 2000

LopezHuertas E, Oh JS, Baker A Antibodies against Pex14p block ATP-independent binding of matrix proteins to peroxisomes in vitro FEBS Letters 459 227-229, 1999

Tugal HB, Pool MR, Baker A Arabidopsis 22-kilodalton peroxisomal membrane protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis and biochemical characterization Plant Physiology 120 309-320, 1999

Lopez-Huertas E, Baker A Peroxisome biogenesis SYMP SOC GEN MICROBI 58 204-238, 1999

Pool MR, Lopez-Huertas E, Baker A Characterization of intermediates in the process of plant peroxisomal protein import The EMBO Journal 17 6854-6862, 1998

Pool MR, Lopez-Huertas E, Horng JT, Baker A NADPH is a specific inhibitor of protein import into glyoxysomes The Plant Journal 15 1-14, 1998

Baker A, Tugal HB Targeting of glyoxysomal proteins Protein Targeting and Translocation 273-286, 1998

Kaplan CP, Tugal HB, Baker A Isolation of a cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis galactokinase by functional expression in yeast Plant Molecular Biology 34 497-506, 1997

Taylor KM, Kaplan CP, Gao XP, Baker A Localization and targeting of isocitrate lyases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biochemical Journal 319 255-262, 1996

Baker A In vitro systems in the study of peroxisomal protein import Experientia. Supplementum 52 1055-1062, 1996

Baker A "Weird but vital" a review of The Peroxisome: a vital organelle by Colin Masters and Dennis Crane Trends in Biochemical Sciences 21 pp.193-, 1996

Gao XP, Marrison JL, Pool MR, Leech RM, Baker A Castor bean isocitrate lyase lacking the putative peroxisomal targeting signal 1 ARM is imported into plant peroxisomes both in vitro and in vivo Plant Physiology 112 1457-1464, 1996

Baker A, Halpin C, Lord J The structure and formation of microbodies In Plant Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1996

Baker A Biogenesis of plant peroxisomes In Membranes: specialised functions in plant cells, 1996

Baker A, Kaplan CP, Pool MR Protein targeting and translocation a comparative survey Biological Reviews 71 637-702, 1996

Horng JT, Behari R, Burke LE, Baker A Investigation of the energy requirement and targeting signal for the import of glycolate oxidase into glyoxysomes. Eur J Biochem 230 157-163, 1995
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Onyeocha I, Behari R, Hill D, Baker A Targeting of castor bean glyoxysomal isocitrate lyase to tobacco leaf peroxisomes. Plant Mol Biol 22 385-396, 1993
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Behari R, Baker A The carboxyl terminus of isocitrate lyase is not essential for import into glyoxysomes in an in vitro system. J Biol Chem 268 7315-7322, 1993
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Rodriguez D, Ginger RS, Baker A, Northcote DH Nucleotide sequence analysis of a cDNA clone encoding malate synthase of castor bean (Ricinus communis) reveals homology to DAL7, a gene involved in allantoin degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plant Mol Biol 15 501-504, 1990

Lemire BD, Fankhauser C, Baker A, Schatz G The mitochondrial targeting function of randomly generated peptide sequences correlates with predicted helical amphiphilicity. J Biol Chem 264 20206-20215, 1989
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Vestweber D, Brunner J, Baker A, Schatz G A 42K outer-membrane protein is a component of the yeast mitochondrial protein import site. Nature 341 205-209, 1989
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Bathgate B, Baker A, Leaver CJ Two genes encode the adenine nucleotide translocator of maize mitochondria. Isolation, characterisation and expression of the structural genes. Eur J Biochem 183 303-310, 1989
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van Loon AP, Eilers M, Baker A, Verner K Transport of proteins into yeast mitochondria. J Cell Biochem 36 59-71, 1988
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Baker A, Lanyon-Hogg T, Warriner SL Peroxisome protein import: a complex journey. Biochem Soc Trans 44 783-789
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