Faculty of Biological Sciences

Prof James Deuchars

BSc, Glasgow; PhD 1992, London.
Professor of Systems Neuroscience
School of Biomedical Sciences

Contact:  Garstang G5.53g, office:Miall 7.11 | +44(0) 113 34 35594 | email address for  

Research Interests

How the central nervous system controls the autonomic system

Worldwide, hypertension and associated cardiovascular problems are on the increase. One currently untapped avenue for treatment is manipulation of areas of the central nervous system involved in cardiovascular control. Our aim is to further current understanding in these areas to open up the possibility of new interventions. We have several projects in this and associated areas:

Neuromodulation of the autonomic nervous systemNeuromodulation, the alteration of nerve activity through the use of targeted electrical stimulation or pharmacology, is a rapidly advancing field with applications in a plethora of conditions that have previously proven difficult to treat. We are investigating how neuromodulation influences the autonomic nervous system. We are investigating the effects of transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (tVNS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on autonomic nervous output in humans. We measure heart rate variability, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity and apply microneurography to measure sympathetic nerve activity.

Neuronal circuits controlling autonomic outflow – we combine electrophysiology and neuroanatomy to investigate properties of neuronal circuits in the CNS that underlie control of the autonomic nervous system. Much of this work focusses on cardiovascular control, but we also have interests in other autonomic outputs. A large part of this work focusses on the spinal cord and leads us to consider other spinal cord circuitry as part of a larger grouping at Leeds focussing on these areas.

Spinal cord connectome – with colleagues at Leeds (Chakrabarty, Sue Deuchars, Gamper, Ichiyama, King) we aim to investigate the spinal connectome – understanding how sensory afferents carry information into the spinal cord, the connections within the dorsal horn that processes the signals, the connections between these cells and the output cells of the cord – motor and preganglionic neurones. This incorporates understanding the properties and connections of cells within these circuits.

Differential expression of NKAa1 and NKAa3 in a and g motoneurones in the spinal cord. See Edwards et al (2013), Journal of Neuroscience, 33(24):9913-9.

Areas from which our research benefits from the input of colleagues in Leeds include:

Neuroscience and the cross-university research interest group NeuR@L.

Our cardiovascular research is facilitated by colleagues in the University wide Multi-Disciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre and in the Faculty by Cardiovascular, Sports and Exercise Sciences.

Our investigations into how membrane proteins such as ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors and transporters influence the properties of neurones under investigation are aided by the Integrative Membrane Biology group.

 

Current Projects

Neuromodulation of the autonomic nervous system - employing physiological measurements of cardiorespiratory variables in human subjects.

Brainstem neuronal circuits - the brainstem receives information from the body about the state of the circulation with every beat of the heart. Most of this input terminates in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius. This region of the brainstem then assimilates this information and sends relevant details to the output regions of the CNS to hold the cardiovascular system at its desirable level. The NTS is known to have a complicated circuitry involved in processing all this information and many interneurones are included in this circuitry. These projects are investigating the physiology, pharmacology and anatomy of these neuronal circuits

Spinal Interneurones - the heart and circulatory system are controlled in part by the sympathetic nervous system which can be regulated by the brain as well as feedback from the body. A major level of control occurs in the spinal cord where sympathetic preganglionic neurones (SPNs) contribute to the control of heart rate and blood pressure. These SPNs are influenced by pathways from the brain and body which can act via small local cells (interneurones). To date, very little is known about the characteristics of these interneurones - where they are located, which neurones link to these cells, what neurotransmitters they contain and how they talk to the SPNs. We are therefore interested in determining these characteristics since we believe that these cells play a prominent role in the control of the circulation in both health and disease.

Our research receives support from the British Heart Foundation, The Wellcome Trust, The Royal Society and the BBSRC.

 

Faculty Research and Innovation


Studentship information

Undergraduate project topics:

  • Modulating neurogenesis in the CNS
  • The role of the central nervous system in control of blood pressure
  • Spinal cord circuits

Postgraduate studentship areas:

  • The role of the central nervous system in control of blood pressure.
  • Modulating neurogenesis in the CNS
  • Neuromodulation of the autonomic nervous system
  • Vagal nerve stimulation

See also:

Admin roles

External Examiner (taught course): Cardiff
Faculty Research & Innovation Committee (Chair)
FBS Equality and Diversity Committee
FBS Exective Committee
FBS Faculty Board
FBS FTSEC
FBS Graduate School Committee
FBS Strategy Group

Modules managed

BMSC3139 - Systems Neurophysiology

Modules taught

BIOL5212M/5321M - Bioimaging
BIOL5292M - Bioscience MSc Research Proj
BIOL5294M - MSc Bioscience Res Project Pro
BMSC1210/SPSC1222 - Biology of the Mind/Neuroscience for Exercise Science
BMSC1213 - Basic Laboratory and Scientific Skills 2
BMSC3139 - Systems Neurophysiology
BMSC3301 - Research Proj: Biomed Sciences

Committees

Member of Faculty Taught Student Education Committee
Member of Graduate School Committee

Centre membership:

Group Leader Prof James Deuchars  (Professor of Systems Neuroscience)

How the central nervous system controls the autonomic system 


Dr Ian Edwards  (Visiting Research Fellow)

I'm interested in connections which exist between areas of the brain associated with reward and those which control food intake 

Dr Varinder Lall  (Research Fellow)

Dr Sarah Larrington  (Research Fellow)

Dr Lucy Peers  (Research Fellow)


Postgraduates

Jillian Daniel  
Jittima Gotts  
Jessica Haigh  
Claudia MacLean  
Mohd Mahadi  
Yusoff Merican  
Aaron Murray  
Lauryn New  
Oliver Purnell  
Nazlahshaniza Shafin  

Clancy JA; Johnson R; Raw R; Deuchars SA; Deuchars J Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex increases sympathetic nerve activity. Brain Stimulation 7 97-104, 2014
DOI:10.1016/j.brs.2013.08.005
View abstract

Edwards IJ; Lall VK; Paton JF; Yanagawa Y; Szabo G; Deuchars SA; Deuchars J Neck muscle afferents influence oromotor and cardiorespiratory brainstem neural circuits Brain Structure and Function 1-16, 2014
DOI:10.1007/s00429-014-0734-8
View abstract

Clancy JA; Mary DA; Witte KK; Greenwood JP; Deuchars SA; Deuchars J Non-invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Healthy Humans Reduces Sympathetic Nerve Activity Brain Stimulation -, 2014
DOI:10.1016/j.brs.2014.07.031
View abstract

Corns LF; Deuchars J; Deuchars SA GABAergic responses of mammalian ependymal cells in the central canal neurogenic niche of the postnatal spinal cord Neuroscience Letters 553 57-62, 2013
DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2013.07.007
View abstract

Edwards IJ; Singh M; Morris S; Osborne L; Le Ruez T; Fuad M; Deuchars SA; Deuchars J A simple method to fluorescently label pericytes in the CNS and skeletal muscle MICROVASCULAR RESEARCH 89 164-168, 2013
DOI:10.1016/j.mvr.2013.05.008

Edwards IJ; Bruce G; Lawrenson C; Howe L; Clapcote SJ; Deuchars SA; Deuchars J Na+/K+ ATPaseα1 and α3 Isoforms Are Differentially Expressed in α- and γ-Motoneurons. Journal of Neuroscience 33 9913-9919, 2013
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5584-12.2013
View abstract

Chapman RJ; Lall VK; Maxeiner S; Willecke K; Deuchars J; King AE Localization of neurones expressing the gap junction protein Connexin45 within the adult spinal dorsal horn: a study using Cx45-eGFP reporter mice. Brain Struct Funct 218 751-765, 2013
DOI:10.1007/s00429-012-0426-1
View abstract

Clancy JA; Deuchars SA; Deuchars J The wonders of the Wanderer Experimental Physiology 98 38-45, 2013
DOI:10.1113/expphysiol.2012.064543
View abstract

Lall VK; Dutschmann M; Deuchars J; Deuchars SA The anti-malarial drug Mefloquine disrupts central autonomic and respiratory control in the working heart brainstem preparation of the rat JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE 19 -, 2012
DOI:10.1186/1423-0127-19-103

Voytenko LP; Lushnikova IV; Skok MV; Lykhmus OY; Deuchars J; Skibo GG Co-Expression of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Isoform 67, Membrane Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, and Connexin 36 in Ischemia-Resistant Hippocampal Interneurons, 2012

Hogarth AJ; Graham LN; Corrigan JH; Deuchars J; Mary DA; Greenwood JP Sympathetic nerve hyperactivity and its effect in postmenopausal women. J Hypertens 29 2167-2175, 2011
DOI:10.1097/HJH.0b013e32834b8014
View abstract

Pierce ML; Deuchars J; Deuchars SA SPONTANEOUS RHYTHMOGENIC CAPABILITIES OF SYMPATHETIC NEURONAL ASSEMBLIES IN THE RAT SPINAL CORD SLICE NEUROSCIENCE 170 827-838, 2010
DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.07.007

Brooke RE; Corns L; Edwards IJ; Deuchars J Kv3.3 immunoreactivity in the vestibular nuclear complex of the rat with focus on the medial vestibular nucleus: Targeting of Kv3.3 neurones by terminals positive for vesicular glutamate transporter 1 BRAIN RES 1345 45-58, 2010
DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.05.020

Dallas ML; Deuchars SA; Deuchars J Immunopharmacology: utilizing antibodies as ion channel modulators. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 3 281-289, 2010
DOI:10.1586/ecp.10.18
View abstract

Wang L; Bruce G; Spary E; Deuchars J; Deuchars SA GABA(B) Mediated Regulation of Sympathetic Preganglionic Neurons: Pre- and Postsynaptic Sites of Action. Front Neurol 1 142-, 2010
DOI:10.3389/fneur.2010.00142
View abstract

Edwards IJ; Deuchars SA; Deuchars J The intermedius nucleus of the medulla: A potential site for the integration of cervical information and the generation of autonomic responses J CHEM NEUROANAT 38 166-175, 2009
DOI:10.1016/j.jchemneu.2009.01.001

Wang LH; Spary E; Deuchars J; Deuchars SA Tonic GABAergic Inhibition of Sympathetic Preganglionic Neurons: A Novel Substrate for Sympathetic Control J NEUROSCI 28 12445-12452, 2008
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2951-08.2008

Van Der Giessen RS; Koekkoek SK; van Dorp S; De Gruijl JR; Cupido A; Khosrovani S; Dortland B; Wellershaus K; Degen J; Deuchars J; Fuchs EC; Monyer H; Willecke K; De Jeu MTG; De Zeeuw CI Role of olivary electrical coupling in cerebellar motor learning NEURON 58 599-612, 2008
DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.03.016

Wellershaus K; Degen J; Deuchars J; Theis M; Charollais A; Caille D; Gauthier B; Janssen-Bienhold U; Sonntag S; Herrera P; Meda P; Willecke K A new conditional mouse mutant reveals specific expression and functions of connexin36 in neurons and pancreatic beta-cells EXP CELL RES 314 997-1012, 2008
DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.12.024

Dallas ML; Morris NP; Lewis DI; Deuchars SA; Deuchars J Voltage-gated potassium currents within the dorsal vagal nucleus: Inhibition by BDS toxin BRAIN RES 1189 51-57, 2008
DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2007.10.090

Kreuzberg MM; Deuchars J; Weiss E; Schoberd A; Sonntag S; Wlershaus K; Draguhn A; Willecke K Expression of connexin30.2 in interneurons of the central nervous system in the mouse MOL CELL NEUROSCI 37 119-134, 2008
DOI:10.1016/j.mcn.2007.09.003

Dallas ML; Deuchars SA; Deuchars J Modulation of potassium ion channel proteins utilising antibodies. Methods Mol Biol 491 247-255, 2008
DOI:10.1007/978-1-59745-526-8_19
View abstract

Poole SL; Deuchars J; Lewis DI; Deuchars SA Subdivision-specific responses of neurons in the nucleus of the tractus Solitarius to activation of mu-opioid receptors in the rat J NEUROPHYSIOL 98 3060-3071, 2007
DOI:10.1152/jn.00755.2007

Bettini NL; Moores TS; Baxter B; Deuchars J; Parson SH Dynamic remodelling of synapses can occur in the absence of the parent cell body BMC NEUROSCI 8 -, 2007
DOI:10.1186/1471-2202-8-79

Edwards IJ; Dallas ML; Poole SL; Milligan CJ; Yanagawa Y; Szabo G; Erdelyi F; Deuchars SA; Deuchars J The neurochemically diverse intermedius nucleus of the medulla as a source of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input to the nucleus tractus solitarii J NEUROSCI 27 8324-8333, 2007
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0638-07.2007

Bruce AW; Krejci A; Ooi L; Deuchars J; Wood IC; Dolezal V; Buckley NJ The transcriptional repressor REST is a critical regulator of the neurosecretory phenotype J NEUROCHEM 98 1828-1840, 2006
DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.04010.x

Paton JFR; Lonergan T; Deuchars J; James PE; Kasparov S Detection of angiotensin II mediated nitric oxide release within the nucleus of the solitary tract using electron-paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy AUTONOMIC NEUROSCIENCE-BASIC&CLINICAL 126 193-201, 2006
DOI:10.1016/j.autneu.2006.02.016

Ashour F; Atterbury-Thomas M; Deuchars J; Evans RJ An evaluation of antibody detection of the P2X(1) receptor subunit in the CNS of wild type and P2X(1)-knockout mice NEUROSCI LETT 397 120-125, 2006
DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2005.12.004

Milligan CJ; Edwards IJ; Deuchars J HCN1 ion channel immunoreactivity in spinal cord and medulla oblongata BRAIN RES 1081 79-91, 2006
DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.01.019

Brooke RE; Atkinson L; Edwards I; Parson SH; Deuchars J Immunohistochemical localisation of the voltage gated potassium ion channel subunit Kv3.3 in the rat medulla oblongata and thoracic spinal cord BRAIN RES 1070 101-115, 2006
DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2005.10.102

Sun YM; Greenway DJ; Johnson R; Street M; Belyaev ND; Deuchars J; Bee T; Wilde S; Buckley NJ Distinct profiles of REST interactions with its target genes at different stages of neuronal development. Mol Biol Cell 16 5630-5638, 2005
DOI:10.1091/mbc.E05-07-0687
View abstract

Governo RJ; Deuchars J; Baldwin SA; King AE Localization of the NBMPR-sensitive equilibrative nucleoside transporter, ENT1, in the rat dorsal root ganglion and lumbar spinal cord. Brain Res 1059 129-138, 2005
DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2005.08.017
View abstract

Baxter RL; Vega-Riveroll LJ; Deuchars J; Parson SH A2A Adenosine Receptors are located on Presynaptic Motor Nerve Terminals in the Mouse. Synapse (New York) 57 229-234, 2005

Dallas ML; Deuchars SA; Deuchars J Immunopharmacology - Antibodies for specific modulation of proteins involved in neuronal function Journal of Neuroscience Methods 146 133-148, 2005
View abstract

Dallas ML; Atkinson L; Milligan CJ; Morris NP; Lewis DI; Deuchars SA; Deuchars J Localization and function of the Kv3.1b subunit in the rat medulla oblongata: focus on the nucleus tractus solitarii Journal of Physiology 562 655-672, 2005
DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2004.073338
View abstract

Moores TS; Hasdemir B; Vega-Riveroll LJ; Deuchars J; Parson SH Properties of presynaptic P2X(7)-like receptors at the neuromuscular junction Brain Research 1034 40-50, 2005
DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2004.12.001
View abstract

Deuchars SA; Milligan CJ; Stornetta RL; Deuchars J GABAergic Neurons in the Central Region of the Spinal Cord: A Novel Substrate for Sympathetic Inhibition Journal of Neuroscience 25 1063-1070, 2005
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3740-04.2005
View abstract

Corbett EKA; Sinfield JK; McWilliam PN; Deuchars J; Batten TFC Differential expression of vesicular glutamate transporters by vagal afferent terminals in rat nucleus of the solitary tract: Projections from the heart preferentially express vesicular glutamate transporter 1 NEUROSCIENCE 135 133-145, 2005
DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.06.010

Brooke RE; Moores TS; Morris NP; Parson SH; Deuchars J Kv3 voltage-gated potassium channels regulate neurotransmitter release from mouse motor nerve terminals European Journal of Neuroscience 20 3313-3321, 2004
DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03730.x
View abstract

Ashour F; Deuchars J Electron microscopic localisation of P2X(4) receptor subunit immunoreactivity to pre- and post-synaptic neuronal elements and glial processes in the dorsal vagal complex of the rat BRAIN RES 1026 44-55, 2004
DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2004.08.002

Milligan CJ; Buckley NJ; Garret M; Deuchars J; Deuchars SA Evidence for Inhibition Mediated by Coassembly of GABAAand GABACReceptor Subunits in Native Central Neurons Journal of Neuroscience 24 7241-7250, 2004
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1979-04.2004
View abstract

Deuchars J Immuno-electron microscopic localization of P2X receptors FUNDAMENTAL&CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 18 12-12, 2004

Brooke RE; Atkinson L; Batten TFC; Deuchars SA; Deuchars J Association of potassium channel Kv3.4 subunits with pre- and post-synaptic structures in brainstem and spinal cord Neuroscience 126 1001-1010, 2004
DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.03.051
View abstract

Brooke RE; Deuchars J; Deuchars SA Input-specific modulation of neurotransmitter release in the lateral horn of the spinal cord via adenosine receptors. J Neurosci 24 127-137, 2004
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4591-03.2004
View abstract

Williams BP; Milligan CJ; Street M; Hornby FM; Deuchars J; Buckley NJ Transcription of the M1 muscarinic receptor gene in neurons and neuronal progenitors of the embryonic rat forebrain J NEUROCHEM 88 70-77, 2004
DOI:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.02117.x

Atkinson L; Batten TF; Moores TS; Varoqui H; Erickson JD; Deuchars J Differential co-localisation of the P2X7 receptor subunit with vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in rat CNS. Neuroscience 123 761-768, 2004
View abstract

Ahmad Z; Milligan CJ; Paton JFR; Deuchars J Angiotensin type 1 receptor immunoreactivity in the thoracic spinal cord BRAIN RES 985 21-31, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S0006-8993(03)03112-3

Charles KJ; Deuchars J; Davies CH; Pangalos MN GABA(B) receptor subunit expression in glia MOL CELL NEUROSCI 24 214-223, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S1044-7431(03)00162-3

Atkinson L; Shigetomi E; Kato F; Deuchars J Differential increases in P2X receptor levels in rat vagal efferent neurones following a vagal nerve section. Brain Res 977 112-118, 2003
View abstract

Corbett EKA; Saha S; Deuchars J; McWilliam PN; Batten TFC Ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit immunoreactivity of vagal preganglionic neurones projecting to the rat heart AUTON NEUROSCI-BASIC 105 105-117, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S1566-0702(03)00047-X

Atkinson L; Batten TFC; Corbett EKA; Sinfield JK; Deuchars J Subcellular localization of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the rat nucleus of the solitary tract in relation to vagal afferent inputs Neuroscience 118 115-122, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S0306-4522(02)00946-6

Gourine AV; Atkinson L; Deuchars J; Spyer KM Purinergic signalling in medullary mechanisms of respiratory control in the Rat: respiratory neurones express P2X receptor subunit. Journal of Physiology 552 197-211, 2003
DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2003.045294

Atkinson L; Milligan CJ; Buckley NJ; Deuchars J An ATP-gated ion channel at the cell nucleus. Nature 420 42-, 2002
DOI:10.1038/420042a

Atkinson L; Milligan CJ; Buckley NJ; Deuchars J An ATP-gated ion channel at the cell nucleus. Nature 420 42-42, 2002

Brooke RE; Pyner S; McLeish P; Buchan S; Deuchars J; Deuchars SA Spinal cord interneurones labelled transneuronally from the adrenal gland by a GFP-herpes virus construct contain the potassium channel subunit Kv3.1b. Auton Neurosci 98 45-50, 2002
View abstract

Sperlagh B; Kofalvi A; Deuchars J; Atkinson L; Milligan CJ; Buckley NJ; Vizi ES Involvement of P2X(7) receptors in the regulation of neurotransmitter release in the rat hippocampus J NEUROCHEM 81 1196-1211, 2002

Parson SH; Cato KJ; Moores TS; Deuchars J Properties of P2X7 receptors at mammalian motor nerve terminals. Journal of Physiology 544 pp.73-, 2002

Deuchars SA; Atkinson L; Brooke RE; Musa H; Milligan CJ; Batten TFC; Buckley NJ; Parson SH; Deuchars J Neuronal P2X(7) receptors are targeted to presynaptic terminals in the central and peripheral nervous systems J NEUROSCI 21 7143-7152, 2001

Deuchars SA; Brooke RE; Deuchars J Adenosine A1 receptors reduce release from excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic inputs onto lateral horn neurons. J Neurosci 21 6308-6320, 2001
View abstract

Paton JFR; Deuchars J; Ahmad Z; Wong LF; Murphy D; Kasparov S Adenoviral vector demonstrates that angiotensin II-induced depression of the cardiac baroreflex is mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the nucleus tractus solitarii of the rat J PHYSIOL-LONDON 531 445-458, 2001

Paton JF; Deuchars J; Li YW; Kasparov S Properties of solitary tract neurones responding to peripheral arterial chemoreceptors. Neuroscience 105 231-248, 2001
View abstract

Milligan CJ; Buckley NJ; Deuchars J Expression of the GABA(c) receptor rho 1-subunit in neurones and glia ofthe medulla oblongata of the adult rat Journal of Physiology 536 22-23, 2001

Deuchars SA; Brooke RE; Frater B; Deuchars J Properties of interneurones in the intermediolateral cell column of the rat spinal cord: role of the potassium channel subunit Kv3.1. Neuroscience 106 433-446, 2001
View abstract

Deuchars J Does the head rule the heart? Trends in Neurosciences 23 449-449, 2000

Deuchars J Nerves - the silent but strong type. Trends in Neurosciences 23 333-333, 2000

Deuchars J; Li YW; Kasparov S; Paton JFR Morphological and electrophysiological properties of neurones in the dorsal vagal complex of the rat activated by arterial baroreceptors. Journal of Comparative Neurology 417 233-249, 2000

Atkinson L; Batten TFC; Deuchars J P2X2 receptor immunoreactivity in the dorsal vagal complex and area postrema of the rat Neuroscience 99 683-696, 2000

Batten TFC; Atkinson L; Deuchars J Nitric oxide systems in the medulla oblongata and their involvement in autonomic control. l, 2000

Thomson AM; Deuchars J Synaptic interactions in neocortical local circuits: dual intercellular recordings in vitro. Cerebral Cortex 7 510-522, 1997

Thomson AM; West DC; Hahn J; Deuchars J Single axon IPSPs elicited in pyramidal cells by three classes of interneurones in slices of rat neocortex. Journal of Physiology 496 (Pt. 1) 81-102, 1996

Deuchars J; Thomson AM CAI pyramid-pyramid connections in rat hippocampus in vitro: dual intracellular recordings with biocytin filling Neuroscience 74(4) 1009-1018, 1996

Dallas ML; Deuchars SA; Deuchars J Modulation of Potassium Ion Channel Proteins Utilising Antibodies In Potassium Channels Methods and Protocols ,
DOI:10.1007/978-1-59745-526-8
View abstract