While there is a growing consensus among policymakers that sustainable intensification is needed to square the circle of feeding a growing global population while avoiding damage to the environment, there has been very little evidence that it can work in the developed world.
Researchers at the University of Leeds and the agricultural consultancy ADAS looked at the food productivity and the environmental impact of 20 innovative British farms between 2006 and 2011.
They identified three farms that achieved sustainable intensification in the period and one borderline case.
Professor Leslie Firbank, Senior Research Fellow in the University of Leeds' Faculty of Biological Sciences, said: "This is the first strong evidence that sustainable intensification has been achieved in an industrial country. When we started, we didn't expect to see any evidence of sustainable intensification. Some might say it is cloud cuckoo stuff--food production goes up, the environment gets better, everybody is happy - but this study makes clear that it can be and is being done."
The researchers looked at food production (energy produced per square hectare), nitrate pollution to water, ammonia pollution to the air, the farm's carbon footprint and a measure of biodiversity.
One large commercial potato farm, Cargill Farms near Norwich, increased its food production (gigajoules per hectare) by 33 percent between 2006 and 2011, but reduced its carbon footprint by 2 percent. Nitrate water pollution fell by 13 percent, ammonia air pollution was cut by 30 percent and biodiversity also improved.
A second farm had even more impressive figures, with a 52 percent increase in food production, a 27 percent reduction in its carbon footprint, a 13 percent fall in nitrate pollution, a 27 percent cut in ammonia pollution and an improvement in biodiversity, albeit from a low baseline.
Another farm recorded an 18 percent increase in food production and significant improvements in all of the environmental measures
Professor Firbank said: "We knew sustainable intensification could work in developing countries, where the paradigm comes from. If you build up the soil and manage water better on a degraded farm in a poor country, you will often get better production and a better environment. However, it is a totally different question whether similar results can be achieved on well-organised, highly commercial farms in Britain."
Firbank added: "What came through loud and clear from working with these farms is that farmers will do sustainable intensification if it makes business sense. They are not trying to save the world. Reduction of carbon emissions and pollution control was fitting these farmers' business models."
Many of the innovative farms in the study that did not achieve sustainable intensification were pursuing different strategies. One turned organic, which resulted in very significant improvements in environmental impact but also a fall in food production. Another switched to strawberry cultivation, which also reduced the energy value of its production.
The research was funded by Land Use Policy Group, which represents the UK's statutory nature conservation, countryside and environment agencies.
Ralf Richter, David Brockwell, Eric Hewitt, Jessica Kwok, Emanuele Paci and MAPS/FMH, BBSRC (Jun 2017), £600,000
Eric Blair, Adrian Whitehouse, Nicola Stonehouse, Alison Baker, Richard Bayliss, Joan Boyes, Ryan Seipke, Sally Boxall and MAPS/FMH, BBSRC (Jun 2017), £376,000
Stefan Kepinski, Yoselin Benitez-Alfonso, Tom Bennett, Michelle Peckham, BBSRC (Jun 2017), £331,000
Roman Tuma, Lars Jeuken, Paul Millner, Sheena Radford, Peter Stockley and MAPS/FMH, BBSRC (Jun 2017), £222,000
Vas Ponnambalam, Darren Tomlinson, Stephen Wheatcroft, BHF (May 2017), £107,878
Graham Askew in collaboration with Bangor University, BBSRC (Mar 2017), £477,383
Stephen Muench, BBSRC (Mar 2017), £132,945
Nic Stonehouse, MRC (Mar 2017), £906,341
Bill Kunin, Steve Sait, BBSRC (Mar 2017), £602,831
Adrian Goldman, EU (Mar 2017), £546,576
Sheena Radford, Wellcome Trust (Mar 2017), £1,836,482
Tom Bennett, Royal Society (Mar 2017), £15,000
Jamie Johnston, Royal Society (Mar 2017), £15,000
Beatrice Filippi, Royal Society (Mar 2017), £15,000
Ryan Seipke, BBSRC (Feb 2017), £52,116
Mary O'Connell, BBSRC (Feb 2017), £46,986
Hannah Dugdale, NERC (Feb 2017), £504,138
Anastasia Zhuravleva, EPSRC (Jan 2017), £100,792
Richard Bayliss, Cancer Research UK (Jan 2017), £1,600,000
John Barr, EU (Jan 2017), £339,000
Mark Harris, Royal Society (Jan 2017), £250,000
Alison Dunn, NERC (Jan 2017), £105,000
Alex Breeze, Pancreatic Cancer Research Fund (Jan 2017), £180,000
Alison Dunn, NERC (Dec 2016), £18,000
Lisa Collins, BBSRC (Dec 2016), £1,681,835
Brendan Davies, Leverhulme Trust (Dec 2016), £247,555
Alan Benson, Mark Drinkhill, Ed White, British Heart Foundaion (Dec 2016), £217,223
Adrian Goldman, Royal Society (Dec 2016), £82,999
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Katie Field, Rank Prize Funds (Nov 2016), £20,000
Jessica Kwok, Royal Society (Nov 2016), £14,948
John Ladbury, Cancer Research UK (Oct 2016), £4,250
Miriam Wittmann, Martin Stacey, Edward Vital, Lupus UK
(Oct 2016), £34,010
Valerie Speirs, NC3Rs
(Oct 2016), £90,000
Nicola Stonehouse, Morgan Herod, David Rowlands, BBSRC
(Sep 2016), £436,424
Joseph Cockburn, Wellcome Trust
(Sep 2016), £100,000
John Barr, Public Health England
(Sep 2016), £94,471
Helen Miller, DSM Nutritional Products A/S
(Sep 2016), £54,680
Steven Clapcote, Vitaflo International Ltd
(Sep 2016), £39,285
Juan Fontana Jordan De Urries
, Royal Society
(Sep 2016), £21,793
Jing Li, Sarah Calaghan, Mark Drinkhill, British Heart Foundation
(Sep 2016), £117,585
Sheena Radford, Alison Ashcroft, BBSRC (Sep 2016), £457,216
Patricija Van Oosten-Hawle, An-Jung Chen, David Westhead, NC3Rs
(Sep 2016), £354,456
Glyn Hemsworth, BBSRC (Sep 2016), £1,024,034
David Jayne, Paul Millner, MRC (Aug 2016), £207,860
Sheena Radford, Alison Ashcroft, BBSRC (Aug 2016), £457,215
Patricija Van Oosten-Hawle, Dave Westhead, An-Jung Chen, NC3Rs (Aug 2016), £354,456
Peter Henderson, EU - European Union
EU - European Union
(Jul 2016), £123,897
Adrian Goldman, EU - European Union
(Jul 2016), £116,290
Urwin, Howard Atkinson, NERC
(Jul 2016), £105,053
Eileen Ingham and colleagues in Engineering and M&H, EPSRC (Jul 2016), £3,867,449
Michael Colman, MRC (Jul 2016), £200,956
Tim Benton, Fresca Group Ltd
(Jul 2016), £52,082