As the global population grows, demands on land become ever greater and environmental change is likely to add to the pressure.
The team, working within the UK research councils' Rural Economy and Land Use programme, has been investigating the most effective approaches to optimising sustainable food production while protecting wildlife.
They conclude that conservation of populations of animals and plants requires thinking and planning across the landscape, because it is at this scale, not the farm scale, that many ecological processes happen. A key advance in thinking is not how to make each farm more wildlife friendly in itself, but how to make the landscape as a whole better for producing both food and wildlife.
Farming systems that avoid using chemicals to increase yields are often thought to be the best options from a conservation point of view, but this research has shown that a mixture of high-yield, intensive farming and land managed for nature can, in some instances, produce both more food and more wildlife than the pursuit of wildlife-friendly farming across the whole landscape.
The team argues for more coherent planning of our whole approach to intensive and non-intensive production. Their research provides important pointers for this kind of strategy at farm, landscape, UK policy and European Common Agricultural Policy level.
Within each area some land needs to be managed for wildlife, and how best to do this will depend on the landscape. Across the UK, different landscapes may also be better at producing food or producing ecosystem services, so one approach may be to concentrate more conservation efforts in particular areas, such as the uplands and coastal wetlands, which are particularly wildlife friendly, while enabling areas that are best suited to food production to be farmed intensively.
Landscape level planning requires creating and connecting suitable habitat patches, on farms and off farms, into a larger-scale network. Most conventional farms already have areas that are not farmed or produce poor yields and, as precision farming techniques become more widespread, unproductive land will become very easy to identify. This may be useful for wildlife but only if carefully managed for that purpose within a larger network of habitats.
As the optimal way to manage a landscape to produce farming and wildlife will vary from place to place, a common policy framework may be needed setting overall aims and processes for making decisions, with implementation devolved to county or regional level.
Professor Tim Benton, Professor of Population Ecology in the Faculty of Biological Sciences, said: "Thinking at a larger scale to create sustainable landscapes is the key. Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy provides an important opportunity to create sustainable landscapes, as it is championing 'sparing land' from food production on each farm to contribute to environmental aims. This 'spared land' could constitute a landscape-scale network if properly designed and managed.
"But we also need to plan a strategy that works at national level and look at how intensive farming within sustainable landscapes in some localities could be balanced by prioritising wildlife to a greater degree in others. Only by much larger-scale thinking can we hope to achieve the holy grail of increased production that is sustainable and does not damage irreparably the natural processes that we all depend upon."
The Rural Economy and Land Use Programme is an interdisciplinary collaboration between the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), with additional funding provided by the Scottish Government and Defra.
Neil Ranson, Mark Harris, Ade Whitehouse, Peter Stockley, Sheena Radford, Alan Berry, Wellcome Trust (Mar 2016), £1,000,000
Katie Field, BBSRC (Jan 2016), £830,381
Alan Berry, Alex Breeze, Adam Nelson, BBSRC (Jan 2016), £479,490
Alan Berry, Wellcome Trust (Oct 2015), £752,365
Julie Aspden, MRC (Oct 2015), £633,020
Steve Sait, NERC (Oct 2015), £386,061
Urwin, Howard Atkinson, BBSRC (Oct 2015), £200,293
Eric Hewitt, Andrew Macdonald, Yorkshire Kidney Research Fund (Oct 2015), £46,621
Ade Whitehouse, Alison Ashcroft, Ian Carr, BBSRC (Sep 2015), £438,975
Dave Westhead, Leukaemia & Lymphoma Research
Leukaemia & Lymphoma Research (Sep 2015), £430,567
Shaunna Burke, Andrea Utley, Sarah Astill, Arts Council of England (Sep 2015), £80,594
Samit Chakrabarty, Ronaldo Ichiyama, Intl Foundn for Research in Paraplegia (Aug 2015), £93,000
Eileen Ingham, John Fisher, EPSRC (Jul 2015), £1,458,439
Anastasia Zhuravleva, BBSRC (Jul 2015), £483,019
Alex O'Neill, MRC (Jul 2015), £249,822
Ade Whitehouse, Richard Foster, Cancer Research UK (Jul 2015), £201,034
Ronaldo Ichiyama, Jim Deuchars, Sue Deuchars, Wings For Life Spinal Cord Research (Jul 2015), £123,895
Helen Miller, ABNA Ltd (Jul 2015), £22,968
Martin Stacey and colleagues in FMH, MRC (Jun 2015), £426,475
Adrian Goldman, Sarah Harris, Roman Tuma, BBSRC (Jun 2015), £420,693
Elwyn Isaac, EU (Jun 2015), £238,915
Christine Foyer, BBSRC (Jun 2015), £160,401
Adrian Goldman, EU (Jun 2015), £116,331
David Brockwell, Sheena Radford, Innovate UK (Jun 2015), £113,378
Yoselin Benitez-Alfonso, EPSRC (Jun 2015), £93,672
Michelle Peckham, Peter Knight, Thomas Edwards, BBSRC (May 2015), £404,987
Michelle Peckham, Ed White, Peter Knight, BHF (May 2015), £208,184
Dave Westhead, Sheena Radford, Alex Breeze, BBSRC (May 2015), £51,021
Steve Clapcote, Vitaflo International Ltd (May 2015), £33,703
Les Firbank, Joe Holden, Pippa Chapman, NERC (Apr 2015), £388,726
Samit Chakrabarty, David Steenson, BBSRC (Apr 2015), £120,103
Paul Millner, Gin Jose, Sarah Aickin, DSTL Porton Down (Apr 2015), £63,407
Chris Hassell, David Lewis, The Physiological Society (Apr 2015), £6,900
Andrew Tuplin, Royal Society (Mar 2015), £15,000
Yoselin Benitez-Alfonso, Royal Society (Mar 2015), £14,770
Patricija Van Oosten-Hawle, Royal Society (Mar 2015), £13,960
Stuart Egginton, BHF (Mar 2015), £272,979
Keith Hamer, Department of Energy & Climate Change (Mar 2015), £58,066
Andrew Macdonald, Yorkshire Kidney Research Fund (Mar 2015), £41,171
Les Firbank, DEFRA Dept for Env. Food & Rural Affairs (Feb 2015), £20,000
Ian Hope, Marie-Anne Shaw, BBSRC (Jan 2015), £381,998
Paul Knox, BBSRC (Jan 2015), £5,000
Andrew Peel, BBSRC (Jan 2015), £359,077
Christine Foyer, BBSRC (Jan 2015), £408,334
Dave Westhead and colleagues in Experimental Haematology, Cancer Research UK (Jan 2015), £700,521
Mike McPherson, Christoph Walti, DSTL Porton Down (Jan 2015), £625,125
Sheena Radford, Mark Harris, Peter Stockley, Alan Berry, Alex O'Neill, Thomas Edwards, Adrian Goldman, Anastasia Zhuravleva, Wellcome Trust (Jan 2015), £443,015
Alison Ashcroft, Peter Stockley, Sheena Radford, Nicola Stonehouse, David Brockwell, Darren Tomlinson, BBSRC (Jan 2015), £340,937
Bill Kunin, EU (Jan 2015), £157,490
John Colyer, Leeds Teaching Hospitals Charitable Fund (Jan 2015), £40,000
Chris Hassall, Royal Society (Dec 2014), £14,500
Ryan Seipke, Royal Society (Nov 2014), £13,700
Neil Ranson, BBSRC (Nov 2014), £355,253