The Faculty's Dr Julian Hiscox and Dr John Barr are working with the Health Protection Agency Porton (HPA) to build a bank of molecular signatures that will help identify the severity of virus infection from characteristic changes seen in cells. Currently the team is barcoding different strains of influenza virus and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) - a virus associated with the onset of asthma in young children.
"Diseases such as flu infect and hijack our cells, turning them into virus producing factories," says Dr Hiscox. "The infection causes the balance of proteins in a cell to change - some proteins are overproduced and others suppressed. Which proteins are affected and by how much varies depending on the type of virus, allowing us to identify a unique barcode of disease for each."
This technique was used alongside mass spectrometry to identify the proteins most affected by viral infection and used these as molecular signatures to provide the 'barcode' of disease. The paper reports how several processes in the cell were affected by the virus, with most changes seen in proteins involved in cell replication.
"Swine flu affects the lungs in a similar way to seasonal flu and this was reflected in the barcodes we found for each," explains Dr Barr. "Using this test might have been a way to identify how lethal the 2009 swine flu pandemic was going to be, lessening worldwide panic.
"Our next step is to test more lethal strains of flu, such as bird flu, to see how the barcodes differ. Flu virus frequently mutates, resulting in new strains which may be life-threatening and become pandemic. If we can test new strains using our method, we can determine their potential impact on health by comparing their barcode of disease to those of viruses already studied."
The group from Leeds has already barcoded two types of HRSV which can cause severe respiratory disease in young children. Co-author Professor Miles Carroll of HPA Porton says: "We have focused our work on common respiratory viruses, such as flu and HRSV, but this method could be applied to a wide variety of viruses, including tropical diseases that are prone to sudden outbreaks and can be lethal."
The research was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Medical Research Council (MRC).
Edwin Chen, Wellcome Trust (Jul 2016), £98,341
Stefan Kepinski, Michelle Peckham, BBSRC (Apr 2016), £461,760
David Brockwell, Sheena Radford, BBSRC (Apr 2016), £358,570
Ryan Seipke, BBSRC (Apr 2016), £340,536
Neil Ranson, Mark Harris, Ade Whitehouse, Peter Stockley, Sheena Radford, Alan Berry, Wellcome Trust (Mar 2016), £1,000,000
James Duce, Alzheimer's Society (Mar 2016), £84,834
Thomas Edwards and colleagues in the School of Chemistry, EPSRC (Feb 2016), £2,228,732
Patricija Van Oosten-Hawle, Wellcome Trust (Feb 2016), £89,900
William Hoppitt, EU (Feb 2016), £34,345
Mark Harris, Thomas Edwards, John Barr and colleagues from the School of Chemistry, Wellcome Trust (Jan 2016), £204,959
Katie Field, BBSRC (Jan 2016), £830,381
Alan Berry, Alex Breeze, Adam Nelson, BBSRC (Jan 2016), £479,490
Sarah Calaghan, Isuru Jayasinghe, BHF (Jan 2016), £52,050
Paul Knox, BBSRC (Jan 2016), £40,000
Andrew Smith, Rosetrees Trust (Jan 2016), £20,000
Richard Bayliss, Cancer Research UK (Jan 2016), £10,000
Richard Bayliss, MRC (Jan 2016), £8,000
Richard Bayliss, BBSRC (Jan 2016), £8,000
Joe Cockburn, Royal Society (Dec 2015), £14,960
Katie Field, Royal Society (Dec 2015), £14,700
Stephanie Wright, Kay Kendall Leukaemia Fund (Dec 2015), £207,286
Zahra Timsah, Royal Society (Nov 2015), £15,000
Jessica Kwok, Wings For Life Spinal Cord Research (Nov 2015), £134,981
Alan Berry, Wellcome Trust (Oct 2015), £752,365
Julie Aspden, MRC (Oct 2015), £633,020
Steve Sait, NERC (Oct 2015), £386,061
Urwin, Howard Atkinson, BBSRC (Oct 2015), £200,293
Helen Miller, ABNA Ltd (Oct 2015), £115,000
Mark Harris, Royal Society (Oct 2015), £74,000
Eric Hewitt, Andrew Macdonald, Yorkshire Kidney Research Fund (Oct 2015), £46,621
Christine Foyer, Royal Society (Oct 2015), £12,000
Dave Westhead, Bloodwise (Sep 2015), £664,109
Ade Whitehouse, Alison Ashcroft, Ian Carr, BBSRC (Sep 2015), £438,975
Shaunna Burke, Andrea Utley, Sarah Astill, Arts Council of England (Sep 2015), £80,594
Samit Chakrabarty, Ronaldo Ichiyama, Intl Foundn for Research in Paraplegia (Aug 2015), £93,000
Helen Miller, Agriculture & Horticulture Develpmnt Brd (Aug 2015), £63,560
Tim Benton, M & W MACK LTD (Aug 2015), £48,711
Eileen Ingham, John Fisher, EPSRC (Jul 2015), £1,458,439
Anastasia Zhuravleva, BBSRC (Jul 2015), £483,019
Alex O'Neill, MRC (Jul 2015), £249,822
Ade Whitehouse, Richard Foster, Cancer Research UK (Jul 2015), £201,034
Ronaldo Ichiyama, Jim Deuchars, Sue Deuchars, Wings For Life Spinal Cord Research (Jul 2015), £123,895
Helen Miller, ABNA Ltd (Jul 2015), £22,968
Martin Stacey and colleagues in FMH, MRC (Jun 2015), £426,475
Adrian Goldman, Sarah Harris, Roman Tuma, BBSRC (Jun 2015), £420,693
Elwyn Isaac, EU (Jun 2015), £238,915
Christine Foyer, BBSRC (Jun 2015), £160,401
Adrian Goldman, EU (Jun 2015), £116,331
David Brockwell, Sheena Radford, Innovate UK (Jun 2015), £113,378
Yoselin Benitez-Alfonso, EPSRC (Jun 2015), £93,672