Professors Urwin and Atkinson have developed three novel technologies for nematode control.
Keeping up with the Joneses harms British bees
10th May 2012
Scientists take 'bee-friendly gardening' on the road as they prepare to exhibit at Chelsea Flower Show
A new study has revealed that poorer neighbourhoods are a bee paradise compared to richer suburban areas where the pressure to 'keep up with the Joneses' often means gardens have manicured lawns and rows of regimented bedding plants that usually don't have any bee-friendly nectar or pollen.
The study, carried out by Dr Mark Goddard from the School of Biology was the first scientific examination of the link between an area's socio-economic status and wild bee abundance. Mark explained: "Previous studies looking at the prevalence of birds and plant diversity had concluded that the better off the area, the greater the number and variety of birds and plants - this is known as the 'luxury effect'. The assumption was that the same would be true of bees, but this research suggested that the opposite is true."
Dr Goddard's research found that gardens in poorer neighbourhoods had a significantly greater number and variety of bees than those in richer neighbourhoods, despite the fact that richer neighbourhoods tended to have bigger gardens with a greater number and variety of flowers.
Mark commented: "We know that flowers are incredibly important to bees, so we were really surprised with these results. However, when I analysed them more closely we found a likely explanation - not all flowers are equal in the eyes of bees.
"Exotic and double flowers, that is flowers such as peonies which often have anthers replaced by extra petals, are relatively inaccessible to bees and contain little nectar or pollen rewards. A secondary problem is that many common bedding plants such as pansies, French Marigolds, busy lizzies and petunias are sterile F1 hybrids, and often contain little pollen to attract bees. Both these types of plants were found more in wealthy gardens, while bee-friendly native plants, such as brambles and white clover, were more common in less affluent neighbourhoods.
"The cumulative impact that garden management has on the overall number of bees in the UK is enormous. Gardens account for a significant amount of green space in our cities. In Leeds for example, gardens make up 30% of the total area. Across England, urban areas occupy 10% of land surface, of which between 20% and 40% is garden.
"The decline of bees in the UK and the knock on effect this has on the pollination of crops and flowers has been well documented. This research shows that if we can persuade individuals to make small changes to the way they garden, it could make a significant difference to the conservation of bees and other pollinators."
Dr Goddard's study also examined factors which influence householders' gardening habits and by far the biggest influence was found to be neighbours and friends. Community pride, fear of what the neighbours might think and the effect on house prices were all important issues, particularly when it came to keeping front gardens neat and tidy.
Mark said: "Because as we often hear that community spirit is lacking these days, this was another fascinating finding. The pressure on householders to conform to social norms was very evident - in fact in the most affluent neighbourhood we looked at, respondents told us that their neighbours had been known to knock on doors if a lawn or hedge was thought to be overgrown.
"While community pride undoubtedly has many benefits, it is a real shame that it can cause people to harm our native wildlife, probably without even knowing it. Apart from anything else we know that the majority of people really enjoy seeing wildlife in their gardens - 85% of people we spoke to felt it added to their quality of life.
"To encourage wildlife, we aren't talking about major changes or letting a garden get completely overgrown. Just leaving a patch of grass to grow a little longer than the rest of the lawn or planting a few bee friendly plants can make a real difference."
The University of Leeds will be bringing Dr Goddard's findings to life and demonstrating bee-friendly gardening techniques at its Chelsea Flower Show exhibit on May 22nd to 26th. The exhibit also highlights other gardening measures to improve water and carbon management as part of an "ecosystem services" approach. To encourage people to find out more about bee-friendly gardening, the University has also launched an online competition, 'The Messy Garden' - to find out more or to enter the competition please visit: www.facebook.com/GardeningForChampions
Why are bees important? All bees, whether they are honeybees, bumblebees or solitary bees, carry out pollination which is essential to the life-cycle of many crops and flowers. This type of pollination, called cross-pollination, involves a bee transferring pollen from one flower to another as it feeds. Like all pollination this process produces seeds, but as cross-pollination mixes genetic material, it usually produces stronger and more vigorous seed than that produced by self-pollination. Around a third of our food is produced from crops originally pollinated by bees, so without bees, major food shortages are likely. In parts of China where the bee population has been virtually wiped out, pollination is already carried out by hand.
In gardens, bees are vital to boost fruit and vegetable gardens and to bolster the garden's overall health and productivity. The majority of bees have a solitary lifestyle, so encouraging bees won't result in a swarm of bees in the garden. Solitary bees nest in sandy soils or rotting wood with the female laying a single egg.
Bee-friendly gardening tips
- Bees love to nest in logs, crumbling walls and woody undergrowth Resist the urge to clear away rotting wood, or to fix up the old garden wall. Create a habitat pile or invest in a 'bee hotel', which you can make or buy from garden centres.
- Bees love longer grass Consider leaving just part of your lawn an inch or two longer to encourage bees. You can always cut the rest so your neighbours still know you care!
- Plant bee-friendly flowers Avoid garden-centre annuals or double flowers which are often sterile and instead opt for flowers loaded with nectar such as lavender or fuchsias. Not only will you be doing your bit for bees, you'll also be saving yourself a fortune!
- Don't be over keen on your weeding Dandelions, clovers and forget-me-knots are great for bees - a great excuse to put your feet up!
Flowers which offer little reward to pollinators
- Busy Lizzies
- Hybrid tea roses
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