The aim of the research long-term is to develop more efficient biofuel cells, seen as the future of electronics. Because biofuel cells are powered by readily available biological materials, they have the potential to be used indefinitely when electricity is required at places where is it not possible to replace a battery or recharge them.
Most biofuel cells create electricity using enzymes that process glucose, but the Leeds research will focus on bacterial enzymes that can harness light or hydrogen gas to create energy. The work is funded by a £1.42m grant from the European Research Council.
Lead researcher, Dr Lars Jeuken, from the University's Faculty of Biological Sciences, says:"Technology that creates an electrical signal from a biochemical reaction is already in commercial use, for example in blood glucose biosensors. However, developing an efficient biofuel cell that can create sufficient electricity for general use has proved much more difficult. This is mainly because the systems developed to date have only limited control of how inorganic materials and biological molecules interact."
"Our research combines state of-the-art surface physics, colloid and organic chemistry, membrane biology and electrochemistry to develop electrodes with complete control of the biochemical interactions needed to create electricity. We now want to apply this to membrane proteins to generate energy from light and hydrogen."
"In their simplest form, biofuel cells have two electrodes, one which removes electrons from a fuel - for instance glucose or hydrogen - whilst the other donates electrons to molecules of oxygen, making water. When these are connected by a wire, they form a circuit, resulting in an electrical current."
Dr Jeuken and his team have extensive experience in making electrodes that directly interact with enzymes located in the membranes that surround cells. This new project will begin by applying this technique to two specific groups of enzymes, one which harnesses light and the other, hydrogen. These are found in membranes of chloroplast - the parts of cells which conduct photosynthesis - or bacterial cells, both of which have promising applications in biofuel cells. The final part of the project will aim to connect electrodes to the membranes of living bacterial cells.
"Not only will this help scientists understand the role of different enzymes in making energy, but how best to capture and use this energy in electrical applications", says Dr Jeuken.
Dr Jeuken's research will also contribute to a new Interdisciplinary Centre for Microbial Fuel Cells (ICMFC), set up jointly between the Universities of Leeds, Sheffield and York. The Centre will bring together chemists from York, biophysicists such as Dr Jeuken from Leeds and engineers from Sheffield, to work together on improving the performance of microbial fuel cells, using a combination of synthetic biology and nanoengineering.
Neil Ranson, Mark Harris, Ade Whitehouse, Peter Stockley, Sheena Radford, Alan Berry, Wellcome Trust (Mar 2016), £1,000,000
Katie Field, BBSRC (Jan 2016), £830,381
Alan Berry, Alex Breeze, Adam Nelson, BBSRC (Jan 2016), £479,490
Alan Berry, Wellcome Trust (Oct 2015), £752,365
Julie Aspden, MRC (Oct 2015), £633,020
Steve Sait, NERC (Oct 2015), £386,061
Urwin, Howard Atkinson, BBSRC (Oct 2015), £200,293
Eric Hewitt, Andrew Macdonald, Yorkshire Kidney Research Fund (Oct 2015), £46,621
Ade Whitehouse, Alison Ashcroft, Ian Carr, BBSRC (Sep 2015), £438,975
Dave Westhead, Leukaemia & Lymphoma Research
Leukaemia & Lymphoma Research (Sep 2015), £430,567
Shaunna Burke, Andrea Utley, Sarah Astill, Arts Council of England (Sep 2015), £80,594
Samit Chakrabarty, Ronaldo Ichiyama, Intl Foundn for Research in Paraplegia (Aug 2015), £93,000
Eileen Ingham, John Fisher, EPSRC (Jul 2015), £1,458,439
Anastasia Zhuravleva, BBSRC (Jul 2015), £483,019
Alex O'Neill, MRC (Jul 2015), £249,822
Ade Whitehouse, Richard Foster, Cancer Research UK (Jul 2015), £201,034
Ronaldo Ichiyama, Jim Deuchars, Sue Deuchars, Wings For Life Spinal Cord Research (Jul 2015), £123,895
Helen Miller, ABNA Ltd (Jul 2015), £22,968
Martin Stacey and colleagues in FMH, MRC (Jun 2015), £426,475
Adrian Goldman, Sarah Harris, Roman Tuma, BBSRC (Jun 2015), £420,693
Elwyn Isaac, EU (Jun 2015), £238,915
Christine Foyer, BBSRC (Jun 2015), £160,401
Adrian Goldman, EU (Jun 2015), £116,331
David Brockwell, Sheena Radford, Innovate UK (Jun 2015), £113,378
Yoselin Benitez-Alfonso, EPSRC (Jun 2015), £93,672
Michelle Peckham, Peter Knight, Thomas Edwards, BBSRC (May 2015), £404,987
Michelle Peckham, Ed White, Peter Knight, BHF (May 2015), £208,184
Dave Westhead, Sheena Radford, Alex Breeze, BBSRC (May 2015), £51,021
Steve Clapcote, Vitaflo International Ltd (May 2015), £33,703
Les Firbank, Joe Holden, Pippa Chapman, NERC (Apr 2015), £388,726
Samit Chakrabarty, David Steenson, BBSRC (Apr 2015), £120,103
Paul Millner, Gin Jose, Sarah Aickin, DSTL Porton Down (Apr 2015), £63,407
Chris Hassell, David Lewis, The Physiological Society (Apr 2015), £6,900
Andrew Tuplin, Royal Society (Mar 2015), £15,000
Yoselin Benitez-Alfonso, Royal Society (Mar 2015), £14,770
Patricija Van Oosten-Hawle, Royal Society (Mar 2015), £13,960
Stuart Egginton, BHF (Mar 2015), £272,979
Keith Hamer, Department of Energy & Climate Change (Mar 2015), £58,066
Andrew Macdonald, Yorkshire Kidney Research Fund (Mar 2015), £41,171
Les Firbank, DEFRA Dept for Env. Food & Rural Affairs (Feb 2015), £20,000
Ian Hope, Marie-Anne Shaw, BBSRC (Jan 2015), £381,998
Paul Knox, BBSRC (Jan 2015), £5,000
Andrew Peel, BBSRC (Jan 2015), £359,077
Christine Foyer, BBSRC (Jan 2015), £408,334
Dave Westhead and colleagues in Experimental Haematology, Cancer Research UK (Jan 2015), £700,521
Mike McPherson, Christoph Walti, DSTL Porton Down (Jan 2015), £625,125
Sheena Radford, Mark Harris, Peter Stockley, Alan Berry, Alex O'Neill, Thomas Edwards, Adrian Goldman, Anastasia Zhuravleva, Wellcome Trust (Jan 2015), £443,015
Alison Ashcroft, Peter Stockley, Sheena Radford, Nicola Stonehouse, David Brockwell, Darren Tomlinson, BBSRC (Jan 2015), £340,937
Bill Kunin, EU (Jan 2015), £157,490
John Colyer, Leeds Teaching Hospitals Charitable Fund (Jan 2015), £40,000
Chris Hassall, Royal Society (Dec 2014), £14,500
Ryan Seipke, Royal Society (Nov 2014), £13,700
Neil Ranson, BBSRC (Nov 2014), £355,253